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Table 1 Descriptive outcomes of (in-) dependent variables, by group and city

From: Behind the scenes: family involvement and educational achievements of second-generation Turks in Austria, France and Sweden

    Austria France Sweden
    Vienna Linz Paris Strasbourg Stockholm
Variable Metric 2GT CG 2GT CG 2GT CG 2GT CG 2GT CG
DEPENDENT VARIABLES
Early school leavers 1 = Yes 0.29 0.14 0.19 0.08 0.09 0.03 0.19 0.03 0.09 0.04
0 = No (0.45) (0.34) (0.39) (0.28) (0.27) (0.18) (0.39) (0.14) (0.28) (0.18)
High achiever 1 = Yes 0.14 0.35 0.22 0.33 57.7 0.70 0.31 0.71 47.4 0.62
0 = No (0.35) (0.47) (0.42) (0.42) (0.49) (0.45) (0.46) (0.45) (0.47) (0.48)
PARENTS
Importance of parents 1= not important 2.76 3.10 3.16 3.18 3.26 3.54 2.65 3.47 2.07 2.65
  5= very important (1.1) (1.2) (1.2) (1.2) (1.3) (1.1) (1.4) (0.9) (1.1) (1.1)
Homework control 1= never 2.86 2.91 3.26 2.71 3.02 3.23 2.72 3.53 2.41 1.93
  5= often (1.2) (1.2) (1.2) (1.2) (1.3) (1.4) (1.5) (1.3) (1.2) (1.1)
Talking about school 1= never 3.38 3.27 3.61 3.52 3.65 3.93 3.73 4.05 3.65 3.54
  5= often (1.2) (1.2) (1.2) (1.1) (1.1) (1.0) (1.2) (1.0) (1.0) (0.9)
Helping with homework 1= never 2.53 2.81 2.84 2.81 2.07 2.98 1.68 3.06 1.89 2.48
  5= often (1.2) (1.1) (1.3) (1.1) (1.2) (1.3) (1.1) (1.1) (1.0) (1.0)
Contact with teachers 1= never 3.30 2.93 3.33 2.71 3.00 3.31 2.96 3.28 2.38 2.13
  5= often (1.2) (1.1) (1.3) (1.1) (1.1) (1.0) (1.3) (1.0) (1.0) (0.8)
Parental support index 1= never 3.02 2.98 2.93 3.25 2.94 3.36 2.78 3.48 2.58 2.52
  5= often (1.0) (0.9) (0.8) (1.1) (0.9) (0.8) (1.0) (0.8) (0.8) (0.7)
SIBLINGS
Importance of siblings 1= not important 2.32 1.64 2.83 1.88 1.80 2.24 2.38 2.16 3.01 3.90
  5= very important (1.5) (1.1) (1.7) (1.3) (1.2) (1.4) (1.4) (1.5) (1.4) (1.1)
Help with homework 1= never 2.11 1.56 2.49 1.70 1.80 1.58 2.17 1.53 1.69 1.34
  5= often (1.4) (1.0) (1.5) (1.1) (1.3) (0.9) (1.4) (1.0) (1.0) (0.8)
Talking about school 1= never 2.02 1.48 2.3 1.78 1.99 1.93 2.48 1.75 2.58 2.14
  5= often (1.3) (0.9) (1.4) (1.1) (1.3) (1.2) (1.6) (1.1) (1.2) (1.1)
Sibling support index 1= never 2.07 1.52 2.39 1.74 1.89 1.75 2.32 1.64 2.13 1.74
  5= often (1.3) (0.9) (1.4) (1.0) (1.2) (1.0) (1.4) (1.0) (0.9) (0.8)
Has older siblings without diploma 1= Yes 0.11 0.03 0.10 0.03 0.03 0.08 0.50 0.07 0.09 0.07
  0= No (0.3) (0.2) (0.3) (0.2) (0.2) (0.3) (0.4) (0.3) (0.3) (0.3)
Number of older siblings 0 -10 2.62 1.10 2.14 1.45 2.01 1.79 2.99 1.74 3.19 2.13
    (1.4) (1.2) (1.1) (1.2) (1.2) (1.4) (1.7) (1.4) (1.6) (1.4)
CONTROL VARIABLES
Parents’ host-country language ability 1= Not at all 4.01 - 4.55 - 3.82 - 3.62 - 4.89 -
6= Very well (1.0)   (1.0)   (1.0)   (1.1)   (0.8)  
Parents’ Educational level 1= no school/primary 2.21   2.38   2.22   1.83   2.39  
4= Post-sec./tertiary (1.0)   (1.1)   (1.1)   (0.9)   (1.2)  
Length of residence in host country 14- 63 31.74 - 33.35 - 33.16 - 34.03 - 33.97  
    (6.8)   (6.7)   (4.1)   (4.0)   (5.2)  
Family size 0= siblings 2.62   2.14   2.02   3.02   2.52  
  10= siblings (1.4)   (1.1)   (1.3)   (1.8)   (1.9)  
N.    252 250 206 234 248 174 252 177 251 250
  1. Source: TIES 2007–2008
  2. Notes: Mean values are presented, standard deviations in brackets. 2GT = Second-generation Turks CG = Comparison group