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Table 1 Excerpt from the DEMIG POLICY database

From: Conceptualizing and measuring migration policy change

Country Year Policy change Policy area Policy tool Target group Target origin Restrictiveness Magnitude
Germany 1961 Labour agreement with Turkey - to recruit guest workers Legal entry and stay Recruitment programmes Low-skilled workers Specific nationalities (Turkey) Less restrictive (−1) Mid-level change (3)
South Korea 1975 Amendment to the Emigration Law of 1962 - to prevent high-ranking government officials, including judges and presidents of national corporations, from leaving Exit Exit visa/permit or exit ban Skilled/high- skilled workers Citizens More restrictive (+1) Mid-level change (3)
United States 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (ERCA or Simpson-Mazzoli Act) - introduced the General Legalization Program whereby unauthorized immigrants who were in continuous residence since January 1, 1982 were eligible for temporary legal status Legal entry and stay Regularisation Irregular migrants All foreign nationalities Less restrictive (−1) Major change (4)
India 2004 Citizenship (Amendment) Act 2003, came into force in 2004 - regulated citizenship for persons who are married to a citizen of India and are ordinarily resident in India for 7 years (5 years pre\iously) Integration Access to citizenship Family members All foreign nationalities More restrictive (+1) Fine-tuning change (1)
Italy 2009 Law 94 or Part II of the “Pacchetto Sicurezza” (“Security Package”) - made it possible to keep illegal immigrants up to 180 days (previously 60 days) in so- called Identification and Expulsion Centres Border and land control Detention Irregular migrants All foreign nationalities More restrictive (+1) Minor change (2)
Italy 2009 Law 94 or Part II of the “Pacchetto Sicurezza” (“Security Package”) - made conditions easier for foreigners graduating from an Italian university, who now have 12 months to find a job Integration Work visa/permit International students All foreign nationalities Less restrictive (−1) Mid-level change (3)