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Table 2 Variables to code policy content

From: Conceptualizing and measuring migration policy change

Variables Available codes
Policy area Border and land control; legal entry and stay: integration; exit.
Policy tool Surveillance technology/control powers; identification documents; detention; carrier liabilities; employer liabilities; other sanctions; travel visa/permit; work visa/permit; entry visa/stay permit; points-based system; quota target; regularization; entry ban; recruitment/assisted migration programmes; resettlement programmes; free mobility rights agreements; language: housing, and cultural integration programmes; access to social benefits and socio-economic rights; access to justice and political rights; access to permanent residency; access to citizenship; reintegration return programmes; readmission agreements; expulsion; exit visa permit or exit ban; institutional capacities*; action plan, strategy, report*; and contextual elements*.
Migrant group All migrants; all migrant workers; low-skilled workers; skilled high-skilled workers; family members; family members of high-skilled workers, investors, or students; family members of irregular migrants, or refugees, asylum seekers, and other vulnerable people; international students; investors, entrepreneurs, and business people; irregular migrants; refugees, asylum seekers, and other vulnerable people; members of the diaspora; and specific categories.
Migrant origin All (both foreigners and citizens); all foreign nationalities; citizens; EU citizens; specific nationalities.
  1. *These codes were included to improve the contextualization of policy measures and not assessed in terms of restrictiveness.