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Table 8 Migrants in France vs. Non-migrants. Two-stage least squares results

From: Do migrants adopt new political attitudes from abroad? Evidence using a multi-sited exit-poll survey during the 2013 Malian elections

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)
  DEMOC i POLITIC i POLITIC2 i JUSTICE i POLICE i MEDIA i ARMY i INTEREST i INTEREST2013 i CLOSEPOL i MEMBER POL i
MIGFRANCE i (1) 0.023 −0.113 −0.202 −0.171 −0.100 −0.147 −0.368 0.003 0.014 −0.161 −0.181
  (0.22) (−1.28) (−1.65)* (−1.76)* (−0.90) (−1.25) (−2.86)*** (0.02) (0.12) (−1.26) (−1.49)
Male −0.020 0.005 0.059 0.007 −0.029 0.010 0.047 0.107 0.022 0.065 0.047
  (−0.60) (0.20) (1.63) (0.23) (−0.86) (0.28) (1.20) (2.75)*** (0.61) (1.63) (1.26)
Ethnicity (Mother’s tongue) [ref. is other]
 Bambara −0.018 0.031 0.090 0.042 0.141 0.072 0.100 −0.022 0.022 −0.032 0.034
  (−0.31) (0.64) (1.37) (0.78) (2.28)** (1.11) (1.41) (−0.31) (0.35) (−0.45) (0.51)
 Malinke 0.044 0.004 0.121 0.050 0.106 0.086 0.132 0.006 0.052 0.019 0.036
  (0.62) (0.08) (1.55) (0.78) (1.44) (1.11) (1.56) (0.07) (0.68) (0.22) (0.45)
 Peul −0.004 −0.007 0.014 0.129 0.061 0.040 0.097 −0.118 0.088 −0.013 0.020
  (−0.05) (−0.10) (0.16) (1.79)* (0.73) (0.45) (1.01) (−1.25) (1.02) (−0.14) (0.22)
 Sonraï/Djerma 0.165 −0.041 0.022 0.099 0.184 0.103 0.118 −0.072 0.124 0.083 0.038
  (1.52) (−0.47) (0.18) (1.01) (1.63) (0.87) (0.91) (−0.56) (1.05) (0.63) (0.30)
 Dogon −0.044 0.001 0.008 0.056 −0.079 −0.038 0.208 0.039 0.003 0.103 0.055
  (−0.37) (0.01) (0.06) (0.52) (−0.64) (−0.29) (1.47) (0.28) (0.03) (0.72) (0.41)
 Soninke −0.036 0.073 −0.022 0.074 0.071 0.097 0.133 −0.092 0.002 0.010 0.082
  (−0.47) (1.18) (−0.25) (1.08) (0.90) (1.17) (1.46) (−1.02) (0.03) (0.11) (0.94)
 Khassonke −0.126 −0.028 −0.096 −0.010 −0.106 −0.077 0.080 −0.220 −0.076 −0.135 0.015
  (−1.04) (−0.28) (−0.71) (−0.09) (−0.84) (−0.58) (0.54) (−1.52) (−0.58) (−0.91) (0.10)
Age category [ref. is 18–25]
 [25–35 [ −0.005 0.044 0.009 −0.029 −0.053 −0.009 −0.009 0.008 0.004 −0.038 0.026
  (−0.12) (1.31) (0.21) (−0.79) (−1.24) (−0.20) (−0.19) (0.17) (0.08) (−0.76) (0.55)
 [35–45 [ −0.061 0.054 0.060 0.011 −0.065 0.009 −0.040 0.139 −0.022 −0.016 0.072
  (−1.17) (1.27) (1.05) (0.24) (−1.20) (0.16) (−0.65) (2.27)** (−0.39) (−0.25) (1.22)
 [45–60 [ 0.081 0.067 −0.011 −0.047 −0.075 −0.057 −0.067 0.136 0.020 0.038 0.054
  (1.39) (1.40) (−0.18) (−0.91) (−1.25) (−0.90) (−0.97) (1.98)** (0.32) (0.54) (0.81)
 [60–75 [ 0.012 0.063 −0.021 −0.083 −0.072 0.059 −0.019 0.021 −0.119 −0.190 −0.007
  (0.18) (1.09) (−0.27) (−1.31) (−0.99) (0.77) (−0.22) (0.25) (−1.57) (−2.24)** (−0.08)
 75 and more −0.233 −0.111 −0.209 −0.210 −0.059 0.077 −0.060 0.022 −0.021 −0.182 0.265
  (−1.49) (−0.86) (−1.21) (−1.39) (−0.36) (0.45) (−0.32) (0.12) (−0.12) (−0.96) (1.48)
Level of education [ref. is No education]
 Primary 0.047 −0.000 −0.067 0.059 −0.034 0.034 −0.072 0.005 −0.053 0.142 0.094
  (1.16) (−0.01) (−1.47) (1.62) (−0.79) (0.77) (−1.47) (0.10) (−1.21) (2.87)*** (2.02)**
 Secondary 0.022 −0.018 −0.006 −0.035 −0.054 −0.011 −0.108 0.046 0.036 0.123 0.174
  (0.51) (−0.50) (−0.12) (−0.91) (−1.21) (−0.24) (−2.08)** (0.90) (0.76) (2.35)** (3.52)***
 Tertiary −0.030 −0.031 −0.069 −0.015 −0.017 −0.059 −0.108 0.129 0.065 0.122 0.166
  (−0.66) (−0.82) (−1.34) (−0.37) (−0.35) (−1.17) (−1.96)* (2.36)** (1.30) (2.18)** (3.15)***
Region of birth [ref. Bamako]
 Kayes −0.026 −0.020 0.074 0.032 0.119 0.142 0.099 0.063 0.007 0.013 0.056
  (−0.72) (−0.68) (1.83)* (0.97) (3.16)*** (3.59)*** (2.29)** (1.46) (0.18) (0.30) (1.37)
 Koulikoro −0.166 −0.072 0.021 −0.014 −0.039 −0.111 0.011 −0.103 0.049 −0.052 −0.053
  (−2.86)*** (−1.52) (0.33) (−0.27) (−0.65) (−1.76)* (0.15) (−1.51) (0.79) (−0.75) (−0.80)
 Sikasso −0.145 −0.104 −0.126 −0.038 −0.116 −0.031 −0.032 −0.137 0.074 −0.160 −0.050
  (−1.96)* (−1.70)* (−1.54) (−0.56) (−1.50) (−0.38) (−0.36) (−1.55) (0.91) (−1.78)* (−0.59)
 Segou −0.067 −0.039 0.041 0.033 0.057 0.057 0.089 −0.045 −0.033 −0.044 −0.067
  (−1.10) (−0.78) (0.61) (0.59) (0.90) (0.84) (1.22) (−0.62) (−0.50) (−0.60) (−0.95)
 Mopti −0.058 −0.047 0.114 −0.057 0.017 0.034 −0.142 −0.181 0.015 −0.054 −0.043
  (−0.66) (−0.64) (1.16) (−0.72) (0.18) (0.35) (−1.33) (−1.71)* (0.15) (−0.50) (−0.42)
 Gao/Mopti/ −0.389 −0.105 −0.097 −0.102 −0.027 −0.100 −0.071 0.043 0.044 −0.198 0.010
 Kidal (−3.01)*** (−0.99) (−0.68) (−0.88) (−0.20) (−0.71) (−0.46) (0.28) (0.32) (−1.26) (0.06)
 Abroad 0.040 0.028 0.177 0.155 0.058 0.136 0.123 0.023 0.051 0.079 −0.025
  (0.41) (0.35) (1.65)* (1.77)* (0.58) (1.28) (1.06) (0.20) (0.48) (0.68) (−0.22)
 Constant 0.266 0.117 0.232 0.144 0.216 0.201 0.391 0.262 0.677 0.511 0.128
  (3.55)*** (1.91)* (2.80)*** (2.14)** (2.76)*** (2.45)** (4.36)*** (2.95)*** (8.35)*** (5.63)*** (1.50)
Underident. test 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Weak ident. Test(1) 62.163 62.693 59.240 62.325 62.462 61.918 62.410 63.731 63.244 63.443 62.878
Sargan (p value) 0.728 0.996 0.966 0.091 0.278 0.698 0.755 0.271 0.848 0.390 0.688
Number of obs. 843 843 837 840 845 843 844 849 848 848 848
  1. (1) The reference category is “Being a non-migrant
  2. *p < 0.10. **p < 0.05. ***p < 0.01
  3. The list of instruments includes a dummy variable for whether the individual is the household head and real GDP par capita growth in France for when the individual is 24 yearsold (source: World Bank, 2015). (1) The Stock-Yogo weak identification test critical value at 10 % is 19.93
  4. Student’s t in parentheses