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Table 9 Migrants in Côte d’Ivoire vs. Non-migrants. Two-stage least squares results

From: Do migrants adopt new political attitudes from abroad? Evidence using a multi-sited exit-poll survey during the 2013 Malian elections

  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)
  DEMOC i POLITIC i POLITIC2 i JUSTICE i POLICE i MEDIA i ARMY i INTEREST i INTEREST2013 i CLOSE POL i MEMBERPOL i
MIGIVOIRE i (1) 0.234 0.141 −0.098 0.091 0.220 0.095 −0.311 −0.248 −0.250 −0.040 −0.110
  (1.86)* (1.32) (−0.72) (0.77) (1.61) (0.70) (−2.14)** (−1.77)* (−2.00)** (−0.29) (−0.87)
Male 0.006 0.012 0.081 0.017 −0.022 0.012 0.061 0.143 0.061 0.059 0.029
  (0.17) (0.39) (2.04)** (0.49) (−0.57) (0.32) (1.46) (3.51)*** (1.63) (1.45) (0.78)
Ethnicity (Mother’s tongue) [ref. is other]
 Bambara 0.034 0.043 0.055 0.047 0.116 0.069 0.085 0.011 0.056 −0.008 0.015
  (0.60) (0.88) (0.88) (0.88) (1.91)* (1.13) (1.29) (0.18) (0.93) (−0.12) (0.26)
 Malinke 0.085 0.040 0.091 0.025 0.056 0.051 0.115 0.017 0.071 0.070 0.021
  (1.32) (0.73) (1.27) (0.42) (0.81) (0.73) (1.55) (0.23) (1.04) (0.98) (0.32)
 Peul 0.075 −0.010 −0.043 0.135 0.039 0.081 0.134 −0.099 0.051 0.059 0.029
  (0.99) (−0.16) (−0.52) (1.89)* (0.49) (0.99) (1.53) (−1.16) (0.65) (0.71) (0.38)
 Sonraï/Djerma 0.209 −0.008 −0.039 0.078 0.183 0.098 0.076 0.017 0.109 0.082 0.027
  (2.04)** (−0.09) (−0.34) (0.82) (1.69)* (0.90) (0.65) (0.14) (1.00) (0.70) (0.25)
 Dogon 0.189 0.061 0.041 0.103 0.009 0.022 0.193 0.123 0.098 0.032 0.061
  (2.09)** (0.79) (0.41) (1.18) (0.10) (0.22) (1.83)* (1.21) (1.04) (0.32) (0.67)
 Soninke −0.026 0.013 0.010 −0.018 −0.029 −0.005 −0.013 −0.045 −0.108 −0.043 −0.010
  −0.35) (0.20) (0.13) (−0.26) (−0.37) (−0.07) (−0.16) (−0.55) (−1.42) (−0.54) (−0.14)
 Khassonke 0.102 0.085 −0.078 0.075 0.025 0.167 −0.003 −0.133 −0.117 −0.066 −0.096
  (0.74) (0.73) (−0.52) (0.59) (0.17) (1.14) (−0.02) (−0.85) (−0.81) (−0.43) (−0.68)
Age category [ref. is 18–25]
 [25–35] −0.013 0.017 0.034 −0.035 −0.037 −0.021 −0.021 −0.045 −0.045 −0.081 0.019
  (−0.32) (0.51) (0.77) (−0.94) (−0.87) (−0.50) (−0.46) (−0.98) (−1.06) (−1.80)* (0.47)
 [35–45] −0.012 0.072 0.074 0.008 −0.050 0.041 −0.034 0.088 −0.026 −0.094 0.054
  (−0.25) (1.85)* (1.48) (0.19) (−1.05) (0.85) (−0.65) (1.70)* (−0.53) (−1.85)* (1.17)
 [45–60] −0.002 −0.011 0.025 −0.088 −0.096 −0.030 −0.122 0.112 −0.021 0.003 0.081
  (−0.04) (−0.25) (0.44) (−1.79)* (−1.75)* (−0.55) (−2.05)** (1.88)* (−0.39) (0.06) (1.51)
 [60–75] 0.025 0.008 0.042 −0.100 −0.101 0.023 −0.149 −0.044 −0.128 −0.181 0.007
  (0.35) (0.13) (0.55) (−1.50) (−1.31) (0.29) (−1.84)* (−0.56) (−1.73)* (−2.34)** (0.10)
 75 and more −0.233 −0.149 −0.301 −0.217 −0.287 0.033 −0.235 0.063 −0.030 −0.155 −0.002
  (−1.67)* (−1.25) (−2.03)** (−1.67)* (−1.96)* (0.22) (−1.48) (0.41) (−0.21) (−1.02) (−0.02)
Level of education [ref. is No education]
 Primary 0.081 0.020 −0.082 0.041 −0.026 0.062 −0.055 −0.067 0.010 0.113 0.133
  (1.86)* (0.53) (−1.70)* (0.99) (−0.55) (1.31) (−1.09) (−1.32) (0.22) (2.27)** (2.94)***
 Secondary 0.022 −0.014 −0.026 −0.047 −0.022 0.045 −0.119 −0.093 0.066 0.112 0.207
  (0.39) (−0.29) (−0.42) (−0.89) (−0.37) (0.75) (−1.83)* (−1.40) (1.09) (1.73)* (3.48)***
 Tertiary 0.015 −0.037 −0.092 −0.042 0.001 −0.009 −0.191 −0.004 0.105 0.097 0.151
  (0.22) (−0.66) (−1.29) (−0.68) (0.02) (−0.12) (−2.50)** (−0.05) (1.54) (1.31) (2.22)**
Region of birth [ref. Bamako]
 Kayes 0.023 0.024 0.062 0.036 0.167 0.169 0.131 0.023 −0.013 −0.003 0.060
  (0.53) (0.66) (1.33) (0.89) (3.67)*** (3.67)*** (2.65)*** (0.48) (−0.29) (−0.05) (1.38)
 Koulikoro −0.077 −0.052 −0.015 0.021 −0.012 −0.058 0.134 0.045 0.097 0.023 −0.026
  (−1.25) (−0.98) (−0.23) (0.37) (−0.19) (−0.88) (1.91)* (0.65) (1.52) (0.34) (−0.41)
 Sikasso 0.031 0.021 0.017 0.047 −0.015 0.035 0.159 0.098 0.094 −0.042 −0.022
  (0.44) (0.35) (0.21) (0.71) (−0.19) (0.46) (1.94)* (1.22) (1.28) (−0.54) (−0.31)
 Segou 0.052 0.005 0.086 0.024 0.046 0.051 0.147 0.015 0.033 −0.025 −0.062
  (0.83) (0.09) (1.23) (0.41) (0.68) (0.75) (2.02)** (0.20) (0.50) (−0.36) (−0.96)
 Mopti −0.132 −0.028 0.088 −0.061 −0.023 −0.007 0.030 0.032 0.031 −0.011 −0.009
  (−1.63) (−0.41) (0.99) (−0.80) (−0.27) (−0.08) (0.32) (0.35) (0.37) (−0.12) (−0.11)
 Gao/Mopti/ −0.257 −0.120 −0.017 −0.066 −0.024 0.008 0.061 0.011 0.092 −0.173 −0.068
 Kidal (−2.27)** (−1.24) (−0.14) (−0.61) (−0.20) (0.06) (0.47) (0.08) (0.77) (−1.36) (−0.58)
 Abroad 0.022 0.015 0.157 0.149 −0.019 −0.029 0.199 0.219 0.076 0.111 0.009
  (0.20) (0.17) (1.37) (1.47) (−0.17) (−0.25) (1.61) (1.85)* (0.71) (0.96) (0.08)
 Constant 0.134 0.074 0.259 0.148 0.182 0.137 0.393 0.340 0.620 0.521 0.135
  (1.66)* (1.07) (2.89)*** (1.96)** (2.13)** (1.59) (4.24)*** (3.65)*** (7.17)*** (5.65)*** (1.61)
Underident. test 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Weak ident. Test(1) 55.606 55.682 56.255 55.267 51.814 52.386 54.637 55.904 61.480 57.415 56.104
Sargan (p value) 0.487 0.396 0.704 0.148 0.231 0.899 0.282 0.505 0.367 0.773 0.216
Number of obs. 902 901 915 889 889 889 893 933 927 934 930
  1. (1)The reference category is “Being a non-migrant
  2. *p < 0.10. **p < 0.05. ***p < 0.01
  3. The list of instruments includes a dummy variable for whether the individual is the household head and the number of fatalities due to civil or social conflicts in Abidjan for when the individual was 24 years old (source: ACLED 2013). Student’s t in parentheses. (1) The Stock-Yogo weak identification test critical value at 10 % is 19.93