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Table 3 Multivariate results for random-intercept regression models of remittances

From: Irregular status, territorial confinement, and blocked transnationalism: legal constraints on circulation and remittances of Senegalese migrants in France, Italy, and Spain

Predictor I. Pooled II. France III. Spain IV. Italy
AME se AME se AME se AME se
Short return (ref.: none) 0.060*** 0.011 0.055** 0.018 0.026 0.016 0.10*** 0.026
Legal status (ref: fully regular: RP_WP)         
 Fully irregular (NRP_NWP) −0.11*** 0.021 0.017 0.030 −0.11** 0.035 −0.045 0.027
 Mixed (NRP_WP) 0.056* 0.026 0.13*** 0.038 −0.026 0.073 0.039 0.030
 Mixed (RP_NWP) −0.03 0.02 −0.047 0.034 −0.033 0.031 0.013 0.033
Destination (ref: France)         
 Spain 0.012 0.042 - - - - - -
 Italy −0.036 0.048 - - - - - -
Entry status: no visa (ref: visa) −0.034+ 0.02 −0.000041 0.027 −0.18** 0.063 0.010 0.045
Years in destination 0.022*** 0.002 0.018*** 0.0027 0.028*** 0.0055 0.026*** 0.0043
Period of arrival: post-1990 (ref: pre-1990) −0.015 0.038 0.052 0.054 −0.10+ 0.061 −0.045 0.086
Age at start of current migration spell 0.0026 0.0025 −0.00035 0.0038 0.0025 0.0040 0.0045 0.0053
Sex: Male (ref: female) −0.029 0.04 −0.060 0.062 0.11 0.080 0.0083 0.071
Years of education −0.0066+ 0.0035 −0.013* 0.0056 −0.0066 0.0058 0.0040 0.0067
Ethnicity: Wolof (ref.: other) 0.0085 0.039 −0.054 0.073 0.052 0.062 −0.011 0.065
Religion: Mouride (ref.: other) 0.0022 0.041 0.037 0.074 0.080 0.062 −0.018 0.059
Economic activity (ref.: unemployed)         
 Employed 0.46*** 0.05 0.38*** 0.078 0.29*** 0.080 0.35*** 0.064
 Inactive 0.098+ 0.053 −0.015 0.078 −0.034 0.095 0.26*** 0.075
Occupation: self-employed (ref.: other) −0.048+ 0.027 0.036 0.064 −0.097* 0.043 −0.012 0.029
Self-reported econ. status: good (ref.: bad) −0.026 0.034 −0.0036 0.060 −0.49* 0.20 −0.11** 0.042
Number of contacts at destination −0.0074+ 0.0038 −0.014** 0.0053 0.0045 0.0075 0.0055 0.010
Number of trips 0.072*** 0.017 0.12*** 0.034 −0.059 0.045 0.12** 0.046
Does not speak language of destination 0.081* 0.035 −0.26 0.22 0.010 0.054 0.088 0.065
Kids in Senegal (ref.: no) 0.072*** 0.02 0.047 0.030 0.15*** 0.037 0.083* 0.036
Spouse in Senegal (ref.: no) 0.038+ 0.021 0.040 0.036 −0.015 0.031 0.063+ 0.035
Geographic origin: from Dakar (ref.: other) −0.037 0.038 −0.034 0.066 −0.053 0.064 −0.041 0.057
Father's ed.: < secondary school (ref.: more) −0.063+ 0.037 0.026 0.065 −0.058 0.059 −0.16** 0.052
Trip paid by family (ref.: no) −0.0051 0.038 0.092 0.062 −0.12 0.080 −0.052 0.066
Plan to stay: definitive (ref.: no) −0.099** 0.033 0.060 0.053 −0.061 0.053 −0.13* 0.057
Trip motivation: work/better life (ref.: other) 0.14*** 0.035 0.013 0.049 0.031 0.061 0.34** 0.11
At least one parent alive in Sn. (ref.: no) 0.12*** 0.024 0.15*** 0.036 0.26*** 0.051 −0.054 0.039
Log likelihood −1938.61 −907.774 −483.250 −425.263
ρ (latent) 0.9 0.896 0.946 0.944
Pearson's r (manifest) 0.71 0.707 0.783 0.782
Observations (person-years) 8119 3676 2089 2354
  1. Source: MAFE-Senegal. Notes: + p < 0.10, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001. Average marginal effects (AMEs) calculated with individual-specific intercept assumed at mean of distribution of random intercepts. Pearson’s r evaluated at median linear predictor