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Table 4 KHB decomposition of effects of legal status categories on remitting via short returns

From: Irregular status, territorial confinement, and blocked transnationalism: legal constraints on circulation and remittances of Senegalese migrants in France, Italy, and Spain

  Legal status (ref: fully regular or visa at entry) Total effect (= direct + indirect) Direct effect Indirect effect Confounding ratio (total/direct) Confounding percentage (indirect/total) Indirect/direct ratio
Pooled Fully irregular −2.122*** −1.828*** −0.293*** 1.16 13.81 % 0.16
Mixed (no RP) 0.817+ 0.985** −0.169*** 0.83 −20.69 % −0.17
Mixed (no WP) −0.725** −0.584* −0.141** 1.24 19.45 % 0.24
No visa at entry −0.39 −0.39 −0.0043 1.00 1.10 % 0.01
France Fully irregular −0.63+ −0.34 −0.30*** 1.85 48 % 0.88
Mixed (no RP) 2.07** 2.31*** −0.23** 0.90 −11 % −0.10
Mixed (no WP) −0.81* −0.63+ −0.19** 1.29 23 % 0.30
No visa at entry 0.49 0.44 0.048 1.11 10 % 0.11
Spain Fully irregular −3.46*** −3.32*** −0.14 1.04 4 % 0.04
Mixed (no RP) −1.16 −1.20 0.040 0.97 −3 % −0.03
Mixed (no WP) −1.10* −1.06+ −0.04 1.04 4 % 0.04
No visa at entry −3.14*** −3.11*** −0.02 1.01 1 % 0.01
Italy Fully irregular −3.19*** −2.54*** −0.65*** 1.26 20 % 0.26
Mixed (no RP) −0.08 0.20 −0.28 −0.40 350 % −1.40
Mixed (no WP) −0.95 −0.77 −0.19 1.23 20 % 0.25
No visa at entry −0.27 −0.15 −0.12 1.80 44 % 0.80
  1. Notes: *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05, + p < 0.1; logit coefficients displayed. KHB method. All models control for variables listed in Table 3
  2. Source: MAFE-Senegal