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Table 4 Heterogeneous effects. Conditional effect of contact with relatives

From: Financial remittances, trans-border conversations, and the state

    HLM
  Ensure well-being Create jobs Ensure well-being Create jobs
  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Contact 0.176 *** 0.162   
  [0.073] [0.135]   
PubSpending (log) 0.0363    
  [0.080]    
Contact*PubSpending(log) −0.0272 *    
  [0.014]    
Percapita GDP (log)   0.0195   
   [0.141]   
Contact*Percapita GDP (log)   −0.0164   
   [0.0176]   
Remittances −0.0148 0.0329   
  [0.050] [0.060]   
Gov’t efficacy 0.0230 0.0237   
  [0.002] [0.025]   
Political interest −0.0262 0.00843   
  [0.008] [0.0213]   
    Individual Level and Interactions
Contact    0.0145 * 0.0173
    [0.008] [0.011]
Contact*PubSpending (log)    −0.0186 **  
    [0.008]  
Contact*Percapita GDP (log)     −0.0339 **
     [0.016]
Remittances    −0.0146 −0.0241
    [0.028] [0.028]
Gov’t efficacy    0.0394*** 0.0337***
    [0.004] [0.004]
Political interest    −0.0152** 0.0179**
    [0.007] [0.007]
Constant 5.184*** 5.638*** 5.634*** 5.753***
  [0.552] [1.283] [0.074] [0.084]
    Country Level
PubSpending(log)    0.0490  
    [0.083]  
Percapita GDP (log)     −0.0290
     [0.125]
Country level random effect u0    0.31 0.35
N 1 53830 54009 53830 53559
N 2    18 18
  1. Sociodemographic controls are age, age^2, gender, education, marital status, employment status, race, socioeconomic status. Columns (3) and (4) are HLM estimations. Country Level variables centered around the grand mean. Individual Level variables centered around the country mean. Dummy variables are not centered. The slope of contact is allowed to vary across countries
  2. Robust Standard errors clustered on country in brackets; * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, *** p < 0.01