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Table 2 Descriptive Statistics for Variables Used in the Analysis, Polish Migrants in the UK

From: Empowering to engage with the homeland: do migration experience and environment foster political remittances?

Variable Measurement Number Mean SD
Dependent     
 Electoral engagement Count of engagement in homeland-related electoral political activities 1694 1,89 1,00
 Non-electoral engagement Count of engagement in homeland-related non-electoral political activities 1694 0,54 0,62
Independent     
 Integration:     
  Time in migration Years of residence in the UK in 2010 1682 4,64 4,18
  Temporary migrant 1 = intended duration of stay is between 3 months and 5 years 1694 0,38 0,49
  Double citizen 1 = citizen of the UK and homeland citizen 1694 0,03 0,16
  Permanent resident 1 = homeland citizen and permanent resident in the UK 1694 0,44 0,50
  Temporary resident Reference category    
 Emigrant networks:     
  Diaspora links A count of types of links with the Polish emigrant community in the UK (range: 0–3) 1694 0,26 0,49
  Network source The difference between homeland-related and host-country sources of support; values above 0 indicate prevalence of homeland sources and vice versa 1694 0,46 0,66
 Destination (UK regions):     
  GVA per capita Log Gross Value Added (GVA) per head, in GBP, by NUTS1, 2009 1694 9.95 0.28
  Emigrant density Logged ratio of estimated Polish migrant population to NUTS1 region population, 2010 1694 1.34 0.41
  Multiracial attitudes Percent who disagree that “It is a good thing that Britain is a multiracial society” by NUTS1, 2004 (NI not included in the original study) 1641 15.19 6.25
Controls     
 Demographic:     
  Age Respondent’s age in years 1682 33,09 9,96
  Gender 1 = male; 0 = female 1582 0,45 0,50
  Marital status 1 = married; 0 = otherwise 1694 0,41 0,49
 Socioeconomic status:     
  College graduate 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1615 0,04 0,19
  High school graduate 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1615 0,67 0,47
  Did not graduate from high school Reference category    
  Manager 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1621 0.05 0.22
  Blue-collar 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1621 0.40 0.49
  Unemployed 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1621 0.05 0.21
  Student 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1694 0.01 0.11
  Retired 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1621 0.00 0.06
  White-collar Reference category    
 Origins:     
  Political motive for emigration 1 = the respondent’s departure from Poland included a political motive 1694 0,49 1.03
  Originates from Warsaw 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1694 0,11 0,32
  Originates from Western Poland 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1307 0,58 0,49
  Originates from Eastern Poland Reference category    
 Homeland links:     
  Remittance frequency Respondent sends money to family and/or friends in homeland: 2 = regularly; 1 = sometimes; 0 = never. 1681 0,67 0,76
  Contact frequency Frequency of contact with family members and friends in homeland on a 5-point scale; larger values indicate more frequent contact 1647 3,62 1,06
  First vote abroad 1 = yes; 0 = otherwise 1658 0.65 0.48