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Table 3 Poisson Models of Homeland Political Engagement

From: Empowering to engage with the homeland: do migration experience and environment foster political remittances?

  Dependent variable: Count of homeland-related political activities engaged
  Electoral Non-Electoral Electoral Non-Electoral Electoral Non-Electoral
Variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Independent:       
Integration:       
 Time in host country 0.975*** 1.017* 0.975*** 1.018* 0.977*** 1.036***
  (0.004) (0.010) (0.004) (0.010) (0.004) (0.008)
 Temporary migrant 1.054*** 1.076 1.051*** 1.066 1.036** 0.904
  (0.014) (0.186) (0.015) (0.192) (0.015) (0.165)
 Host-country citizen 1.144*** 0.531* 1.142*** 0.512* 1.129 0.436***
  (0.058) (0.184) (0.056) (0.179) (0.088) (0.137)
 Permanent resident 0.921*** 1.116 0.923*** 1.160 0.897*** 0.997
  (0.021) (0.184) (0.021) (0.192) (0.021) (0.208)
Emigrant networks:       
 Diaspora links 1.036 1.453** 1.035 1.486** 1.020 1.399
  (0.032) (0.260) (0.032) (0.271) (0.029) (0.299)
 Network source 0.985 0.948 0.988 0.899 0.974 1.025
  (0.033) (0.150) (0.034) (0.147) (0.033) (0.169)
Destination (UK regions):       
 GVA per capita 1.097 4.785*** 1.041 0.582 1.138 3.276*
  (0.089) (2.659) (0.153) (0.723) (0.115) (2.130)
 Emigrant density 0.996 0.249*** 1.025 0.446* 0.971 0.306***
  (0.062) (0.095) (0.058) (0.204) (0.081) (0.130)
 Multiracial attitudes    1.000 0.938   
    (0.004) (0.039)   
Controls:       
Demographic:       
 Age 1.005* 1.034*** 1.004* 1.033*** 1.006*** 1.035***
  (0.003) (0.006) (0.003) (0.006) (0.002) (0.008)
 Gender (male) 1.091*** 0.967 1.098*** 0.974 1.082*** 0.939
  (0.022) (0.086) (0.024) (0.086) (0.022) (0.112)
 Marital status (married) 0.972 0.683* 0.977 0.673* 0.959*** 0.771
  (0.018) (0.152) (0.017) (0.152) (0.014) (0.168)
Socioeconomic status:       
 College graduate 0.986 0.845 0.967 0.818 0.973 0.986
  (0.070) (0.300) (0.073) (0.273) (0.063) (0.350)
 High school graduate 1.020 1.143 1.007 1.095 1.042 1.194
  (0.031) (0.094) (0.027) (0.085) (0.028) (0.189)
 Manager 1.052 1.774** 1.052 1.757** 1.034 1.678
  (0.048) (0.500) (0.049) (0.502) (0.044) (0.725)
 Blue-collar 0.924** 0.658 0.930** 0.666 0.925** 0.571**
  (0.030) (0.171) (0.028) (0.166) (0.034) (0.153)
 Unemployed 1.048 0.775 1.062 0.803 1.063 0.374
  (0.050) (0.407) (0.048) (0.427) (0.061) (0.331)
 Student 0.837 0.602 0.836 0.576 0.830 0.605
  (0.155) (0.639) (0.156) (0.572) (0.143) (0.665)
 Retired 0.881 1.269 0.882 1.155 0.964 1.285
  (0.270) (1.196) (0.270) (1.085) (0.209) (1.176)
Origins:       
 Political motive for emigration 0.925*** 1.197 0.925*** 1.232 0.890*** 0.921
  (0.026) (0.293) (0.027) (0.284) (0.031) (0.206)
 From Warsaw 1.134*** 1.725** 1.132*** 1.687**   
  (0.033) (0.371) (0.033) (0.360)   
 From West Poland      0.936** 0.657
      (0.030) (0.172)
Home links:       
 Remittance frequency 0.983 1.431*** 0.983 1.449*** 0.993 1.487***
  (0.015) (0.116) (0.016) (0.119) (0.014) (0.166)
 Family contact 1.026* 1.486*** 1.026* 1.461*** 1.015 1.413***
  (0.014) (0.078) (0.014) (0.077) (0.014) (0.175)
 First election abroad 0.836*** 0.726*** 0.840*** 0.733*** 0.826*** 0.742**
  (0.014) (0.077) (0.014) (0.082) (0.018) (0.087)
 Constant 0.756 0.000*** 1.461 0.057 0.512 0.000***
  (0.852) (0.000) (2.556) (0.835) (0.726) (0.000)
 Observations 1,515 1,515 1,464 1,464 1,215 1,215
 UK Regions 11 11 10 10 11 11
 Log pseudolikelihood −868.4 −136.3 −843.6 −134.3 −705.7 −111.0
 Deviance goodness-of-fit 306.20 195.79 295.51 192.32 224.09 158.28
 Pearson goodness-of-fit 257.89 649.17 248.50 612.36 195.84 463.15
  1. NOTE: Data is a sample weighted by the estimated Polish migrant stock in eleven of the twelve statistical regions of the United Kingdom (European Union’s Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics - NUTS1) in the analysis. North East England is excluded since no respondent reported residing in that region; the estimated Polish migrant stock in that region is also the lowest among the twelve. Reported in cells are incidence-rate ratios and robust standard errors clustered by NUTS1 region in parentheses. ***, **, and * stand for significance at p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.1 levels, respectively