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Table 1 Examples of probability sampling methods for sub-populations in the absence of sampling frames

From: Surveying immigrants without sampling frames – evaluating the success of alternative field methods

Suitable for (target population) Type of sampling Frames of random selection Further reading (examples)
General population Random digit dialling Telephone numbers -
General population Random routes/random walk List of households, place (time) Brief overview described in FRA 2009b, p. 11–14
Sub-population/minor domains Conventional household sampling with focused enumeration List of households, place (time), clusters defined by selected addresses and adjacent households E.g. Ipsos MORI, 2010; Erens, 2013, p. 52–53; or FRA, 2009b, p. 14–18
Sub-population/minor domains Conventional sampling with Adaptive Cluster Sampling List of households, place (time), clusters of neighbouring households Verma, 2013
Sub-population/minor domains Time-location sampling Place (Time) Baio et al., 2011
Sub-population/minor domains Capture-Recapture Place (Time) Berry, 2007; Williams, 2010
Total or sub-population/minor domains GPS based sampling Place (GPS) Landry & Shen, 2005
Sub-population/minor or mini domains Respondent-Driven-Sampling (RDS) Network Heckathorn, 1997,
Sub-population/minor or mini domains Snowball sampling Network Goodman, 1961
Sub-population/ethnic minorities/immigrants Onomastic sampling Names/telephone book Schnell et al., 2013