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Table 1 Hierarchical linear regression models, testing the association between citizenship and host national belonging, and potential moderators

From: Does citizenship always further Immigrants’ feeling of belonging to the host nation? A study of policies and public attitudes in 14 Western democracies

  (1)
Country fixed effects model
(2)
Random effects model
(3)
Citizenship policy (MIPEX 2013)
(4)
Citizenship as boundary marker
Male 0.01 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01) 0.02 (0.01)
Age 0.00*** (0.00) 0.00*** (0.00) 0.00*** (0.00) 0.00*** (0.00)
Father’s birth country
 EU country Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Other European country 0.08*** (0.02) 0.08*** (0.02) 0.08*** (0.02) 0.08*** (0.02)
 Africa 0.12*** (0.02) 0.14*** (0.02) 0.14*** (0.02) 0.14*** (0.02)
 Asia 0.05 (0.03) 0.05 (0.03) 0.05* (0.03) 0.06* (0.03)
 Middle East 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04) 0.04 (0.04)
 North America −0.02 (0.06) −0.02 (0.06) −0.02 (0.06) −0.03 (0.06)
 Central America 0.11 (0.08) 0.12 (0.08) 0.12 (0.08) 0.12 (0.08)
 South America 0.06* (0.03) 0.07* (0.03) 0.07* (0.03) 0.07* (0.03)
 Caribbean 0.27*** (0.08) 0.29*** (0.08) 0.29*** (0.08) 0.29*** (0.08)
 Oceania −0.06 (0.14) −0.11 (0.14) −0.11 (0.14) −0.12 (0.14)
 Unknown 0.04 (0.05) −0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) −0.01 (0.02)
 Other −0.22 (0.18) −0.02 (0.03) 0.02 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03)
Christian Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Non-Christian 0.00 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02)
 No religion −0.04** (0.01) −0.04* (0.01) −0.04* (0.01) −0.04* (0.01)
Years of education −0.00 (0.00) −0.00 (0.00) −0.00 (0.00) −0.00 (0.00)
Paid work Reference Reference Reference Reference
 Unemployed 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02)
 Student 0.03 (0.02) 0.03 (0.02) 0.03 (0.02) 0.03 (0.02)
 Out of labour market 0.00 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02) −0.00 (0.02)
 Military service 0.07 (0.17) 0.08 (0.17) 0.09 (0.17) 0.10 (0.17)
Citizen 0.06*** (0.01) 0.06*** (0.01) 0.05 (0.05) −0.39 (0.20)
Employment rate   0.12 (0.14) 0.12 (0.14) 0.13 (0.14)
Percentage foreign-born   0.41* (0.18) 0.41* (0.18) 0.43* (0.18)
Host population’s level of belonging   0.44** (0.14) 0.43** (0.14) 0.44** (0.14)
MIPEX Access to Nationality   0.07 (0.07) 0.06 (0.08) 0.09 (0.07)
Citizen*MIPEX Access to Nationality    0.02 (0.08)  
Citizenship as a boundary marker in host population   0.38 (0.22) 0.38 (0.23) 0.13 (0.25)
Citizen*citizenship as a boundary marker     0.57* (0.25)
Constant 0.59*** (0.04) −0.25 (0.23) −0.25 (0.23) −0.07 (0.24)
  1. Note: N (respondents): 1852, n (countries): 14. Standard errors in parentheses. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001