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Table 3 Summary of comparison

From: Trajectories of emigrant quasi-citizenship: a comparative study of Mexico and Turkey

  Mexico Turkey
Citizenship regimes Mexico-US constellation section Turkey-Germany constellation section
Quasi-citizenship Pulls the equilibrium away from dual citizenship Pushes the equilibrium towards dual citizenship
Emigration state regime Territorial Ethno-cultural
Immigration state regime US: Long tradition of liberal regime Germany: Late and partial liberalisation
Historical context of emigration Demographic, economic and political pressures in Mexico section Demographic, economic and political pressures in Turkey section
Demographic pressures Initially underpopulated Overpopulated
Economic pressures Compatible with development objectives Compatible with development objectives
Political pressures Exit as a safe option for opposition Exit as a safe option for opposition
Sending state policies Incentives, perceptions and demand for emigrant incorporation in Mexico section Incentives, perceptions and demand for emigrant incorporation in Turkey section
Economic incentives Rising importance of remittances Declining importance of remittances
Political incentives Modest importance of regional integration, intensifying in the 1990s High importance of regional integration, sustained over time
Perception of emigrants Contempt for cultural dissimilation Contempt for cultural dissimilation
Emigrants’ interest Little or modest interest in home politics Persistence of home politics in the country of residence
Institutionalisation of relations Central efforts of coordination Central efforts of coordination