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Table 5 Multi-level logit regressions. The effects of significant others on habituated university aspirations for Dutch & Swedish students

From: Early tracking and immigrant optimism: a comparative study of educational aspirations among students in disadvantaged schools in Sweden and the Netherlands

Variable The Netherlands Sweden
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Grades 0.393*** 0.382*** 0.278** 0.979*** 0.985*** 0.838***
HE parents 0.500* 0.518* 0.321 0.403** 0.421** 0.310
Female −0.049 −0.298 −0.294 0.128 −0.329 −0.451*
Non-immigrants (reference)       
 EU-parents 0.077 0.083 −0.259 0.478* 0.371 −0.031
 EU-born 0.707 0.636 0.148 −0.147 −0.239 −0.619
 TC-parents 0.060 −0.005 −0.263 0.499** 0.388* 0.005
 TC-born 0.234 0.170 −0.326 0.780*** 0.721** 0.323
 Age −0.229* −0.232* −0.207* −0.319** −0.296** −0.281*
 Parents’ expectations    0.933***    0.878***
 Teachers’ expectations    1.398***    0.794***
 Peer study-attitudes   0.375*** 0.283**   0.583*** 0.477***
 Peer adult-life attitudes   −0.066 −0.106   0.057 0.065
 Female friends   0.068 0.024   0.188* 0.229**
 Constant −0.094 −0.028 −0.497 0.795 −0.153 −0.767
 Constant (Level 2) 0.239 0.245 0.157 0.020 0.018 0.016
 N 1653 1653 1653 1549 1549 1549
  1. Legend: *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001