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Table 4 Linear regression models

From: International remittances, cash transfer assistance and voter turnout in Mexico

  Dependent variable: Turnout in the 2012 presidential election
Instrumental variables OLS
(5) (6) (7) (8)
Remittance receiving households −0.498*** −0.517** −0.414*** −0.211***
(0.057) (0.243) (0.028) (0.060)
Oportunidades spending 0.0003 0.0001 0.001*** 0.002***
(0.004) (0.005) (0.001) (0.001)
Oportunidades* Remittances   0.00002   −0.0002***
  (0.0002)   (0.0001)
Population density (log) −0.911 −0.926 −0.515 −0.493
(0.792) (0.883) (0.397) (0.396)
Population size (log) −4.045*** −4.070*** −3.818*** −3.672***
(0.688) (0.849) (0.373) (0.373)
Social marginalization (index) −0.845 −0.793 −1.197*** −1.264***
(1.856) (2.176) (0.463) (0.475)
High and very high levels of marginalization −0.120 −0.115 −0.004 −0.037
(0.633) (0.646) (0.625) (0.624)
Homicide rate −1.695** −1.722** −1.667** −1.456**
(0.872) (0.993) (0.814) (0.808)
Sex ratio 0.090** 0.090** 0.127*** 0.124***
(0.041) (0.041) (0.037) (0.036)
Constant 75.947*** 76.302*** 68.965*** 67.097***
(11.264) (13.522) (4.442) (4.480)
Observations 2432 2432 2443 2443
State effects YES YES YES YES
R2 0.572 0.571 0.576 0.578
Adjusted R2 0.565 0.564 0.569 0.571
Residual Std. Error 7.069 (df = 2392) 7.079 (df = 2391) 7.032 (df = 2403) 7.010 (df = 2402)
F Statistic    83.554*** (df = 39; 2403) 82.380*** (df = 40; 2402)
  1. Notes: Coefficients are statistically significant at *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05; ***p < 0.01. Robust standard errors are in parentheses