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Table 12 Binary logistic regression: Interplay between social identifications, group discrimination, personal discrimination and local voting probability

From: The relationship between social identification and local voting, and its interplay with personal and group discrimination among the descendants of Turkish immigrants in Western Europe

  Model A7 Model A8
Social Identification
 Turkish identification −.24 (.41) .21 (.11)*
 Islamic identification .02 (.06) .01 (.48)
Perceived Discrimination
 Group discrimination of Turkish-origin individuals −.21 (.44) .06 (.08)
 Group discrimination of Muslims −.08 (.07) −.35 (.61)
 Personal experiences of discrimination −.24 (1.03) −.10 (1.12)
Control variables
 Age .07 (.02)*** .08 (.02)***
 Women (ref. men) .04 (.12) −.00 (.12)
 Middle education (ref. lower) −.32 (.41) −.19 (.52)
 Higher education (ref. lower) .23 (.52) .32 (.66)
 Hours worked per week .00 (.01) .01 (.01)
 Monthly income −.05 (.06) −.07 (.06)
 Language proficiency .13 (.03)*** .12 (.04)**
 National identification .25 (.11)* .21 (.11)*
 National-origin composition neighborhood −.03 (.07) −.02 (.07)
 Turkish best friend (ref. native best friend) −.57 (.19)** −.38 (.21)†
 Other origin best friend (ref. native best friend) −.17 (.21) .12 (.20)
 Islamic denomination (ref. Sunni)
 Shia .64 (.40) .75 (.48)
 Alevi .40 (.28) .46 (.29)
 Other Muslims −.10 (.11) −.08 (.10)
 Non-believer .22 (.17) /
Countries (ref. Austria)
 France −.01 (.32) .16 (.27)
 Germany −.38 (.41) −.52 (.36)
 Switzerland −.03 (.48) .22 (.44)
 The Netherlands .90 (.34)** .97 (.31)**
Interaction effects
 Turkish identification * Group discrimination of Turkish-origin individuals .08 (.08)  
 Turkish identification * Personal discrimination .09 (.21)  
 Group discrimination of Turkish-origin individuals * Personal discrimination .03 (.25)  
 Turkish identification * Group discrimination of Turkish-origin individuals * Personal discrimination −.01 (.05)  
 Islamic identification * Group discrimination of Muslims   .08 (.13)
 Islamic identification * Personal discrimination   .07 (.26)
 Group discrimination of Muslims * Personal discrimination   .17 (.27)
 Islamic identification * Group discrimination of Muslims * Personal discrimination   −.05 (.06)
N 1627 1229
Df 33 31
Prob>Chi2 .000 .000
  1. The results are reported in log odds, the standard errors are indicated in parentheses and the standard errors are clustered on cities
  2. Source: TIES survey; † p < 0.10 *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001