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Table 1 Summary of the expert reviews

From: Sampling migrants in six European countries: how to develop a comparative design?

Item Denmark Sweden The Netherlands Spain Germany Italy
1. Terminology in official statistics and government publications
 Terms person of Danish origin, immigrant, descendant foreign born, foreign citizen, foreign background, asylum seekers person with migration background; non-dutch nationals; foreign born; first and second generation foreign born, foreign citizen, immigrant (incl. Spanish citizens) foreigner, person with migration background, asylum seeker, Aussiedler, refugee, minority foreign citizen
2. Availability and access to population registers
 Name of the register Population register (Det Centrale Person Register) Population register (Folkbokförd) Basic Population Register (BRP) Municipal population register (Padrón) Municipal population register (Melderegister) Municipal population register (Anagrafe)
 Responsible institution Statistics Denmark Statistics Sweden Statistics Netherlands Statistics Spain (INE) Municipality Municipality
 Access for scientific research Affiliation with a Danish research institute necessary Affiliation with a Swedish research institute necessary Dutch Universities and Research Institutes Official support from some unit of the Spanish Public Administration (excl. universities) possible if in the public interest no
 Access for foreign researchers possible dependent on additional conditions possible dependent on additional conditions possible dependent on additional conditions Official support from some unit of the Spanish Public Administration possible with restrictions if in the public interest no
 Linkage with other registers possible possible possible possible - specific request and INE’s assessment impossible possible only by ISTAT
3. Immigrant identification
 Nationality yes yes yes yes yes yes
 Country of birth yes yes yes yes missings no
 Date of arrival yes yes yes Date of 1st registration, accessibility restricted no no
 Parent information yes yes yes no only for minors no
 Personal name yes personal number no yes yes no
 Age yes yes yes yes yes yes
 Gender yes yes yes yes yes yes
4. Registration
 Legal regulations compulsory for all individuals residing 3 or 6 months in DK compulsory for all individuals residing 1 year in SWE compulsory for all individuals residing at least 4 months in NL compulsory for municipalities to register all residents (incl. irregular immigrants) compulsory for all individuals after 2 weeks from moving into the respective municipality voluntary inscription for individuals with valid permits of residence
 Incentives for registration access to welfare benefits and services, open bank accounts, access to daily services access to welfare benefits and services, open bank accounts, access to daily services access to welfare benefits and services access to public health care and other public services such as primary schools, proof of residence for regularisation, campaigns by municipalities fines can be imposed for infringement access to welfare benefits and services
 Estimate of undercoverage 33,000 in 2013 [1] 10.000–50.000 (2.000–3.000 children) 1% of population [2] 9% of first generation   3% of all foreigners in 2011 [4] 7% of immigrant population [3]
5. Deregistration
 Legal regulations compulsory for all individuals staying abroad > 6 months   compulsory for all individuals staying abroad at least 8 months compulsory, but without sanctions compulsory for all individuals leaving DE voluntary
 Incentives for deregistration none   no real incentives none, but extinction procedure (since 2007) and periodical residence check (since 2013) none none
 Estimate of overcoverage 7500 individuals 0.14% of the population [5] 4–8% of total foreign-born population 0,2% of total population [2] 250,000 non-EU in 2007 400,000 (87% EU) in 2013 11.3% of all foreigners in 2011 [4]  
6. Alternative sampling frames (existence, accessibility, and problems)
 Electoral register yes, based on population register, problematic yes, based on population register, access only when applying to regional authorities yes, problematic yes, no access yes, based on population register, no access no
 Foreigner register yes, largely overlaps with population register yes, problematic yes, problematic yes, no access yes, no access no
 Telephone register yes, problematic yes, problematic yes, problematic yes, no access yes, problematic yes, unreliable
 Area-based sampling yes, no evidence yes, problematic yes, problematic yes, problematic yes, problematic  
 Random dialing yes, problematic yes, problematic yes, problematic   yes, problematic  
 Respondent driven possible, few studies    yes, problematic possible, no evidence  
 Center-based sampling possible, no evidence     possible, no evidence yes
7. Data infrastructure
 Reference statistics population register Population register (Folkbokförd) Basic Population Register (BRP) (gets updated every month) Census 2011; Padrón 1st January 2017 Microcensus (annual 1% survey of the population), Census 2011 (regional breakdown only to Landkreis) Census 2011
8. Important national reports
  1. Denmark: Danmarks Statistik (2016): Indvandrere i Danmark 2016 [Immigrants in Denmark 2016]. København. Retrieved from http://www.dst.dk/pubfile/20704/indv2016. Sweden: Statistics Sweden (2016): Retrieved from http://www.scb.se/Statistik/_Publikationer/UF0529_BR_2015A01_A40BR1603.pdf; http://www.scb.se/contentassets/dc0958cc6c9f4747aa2c4a699472b2c9/le0105_2016a01_br_be57br1601.pdf. The Netherlands: Ooijevaar, J. & Bloemendal, C. (Eds.) (2016): Jaarrapport Integratie 2016 [Yearly Integration Report 2016]. Den Haag/Heerlen/Bonaire: CBS. Spain: Informe Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes (ENI – 2007) Retrieved from http://www.ine.es/daco/daco42/inmigrantes/informe/eni07_informe.pdf; Documentos del Observatorio Permanente de la Inmigración (2004–2015) Retrieved from http://extranjeros.empleo.gob.es/es/ObservatorioPermanenteInmigracion/index.html. Germany: Die Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration (2012): “Zweiter Integrationsindikatorenbericht.” [Second Report on Integration Indicators]. Berlin: Die Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration; Die Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration (2014): “10. Bericht der Beauftragten der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration über die Lage der Ausländerinnen und Ausländer in Deutschland.”: [Tenth Report of the Federal Government's Commissioner of Migration, Refugees and Integration about the Living Situation of Foreigners in Germany]. Berlin: Die Beauftragte der Bundesregierung für Migration, Flüchtlinge und Integration. Italy: Cesareo V. (ed.) (2017): The Twenty-second Italian report on Migrations 2016. Milano: Mc Graw-Hill Education
  2. Notes: [1] Retrieved from http://www.rockwoolfonden.dk/en/articles/marked-increase-in-recent-years-in-the-number-of-illegal-immigrants.
  3. [2] Retrieved from https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/achtergrond/2017/09/haalbaarheidsstudie-gewoonlijk-verblijvende-bevolking.
  4. [3] Blangiardo, G.C. (2016): Statistical aspects. In Cesareo V. (Ed.). (2017). The Twenty-second italian report on Migrations 2016. Milano: Mc Graw-Hill Education.
  5. [4] Bechtold, S. (2013). Analyse der durch den Zensus verursachten Abweichungen bei den Einwohnerzahlen. Vortrag im Rahmen der Statistischen Woche, Berlin, 18.9.2013 [Analysis of deviating population numbers in the Census. Presentation at the "Statische Woche", Berlin, 18.9.2013]. Retrieved from https://www.zensus2011.de/SharedDocs/Downloads/DE/Praesentationen/2013_09_Statistische_Woche_Vortrag_Dr_Bechtold.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=6.
  6. [5] Statistics Denmark. Retrieved from www.dst.dk/en/Statistik/dokumentation/documentationofstatistics/immigrants-and-descendants/accuracy-and-reliability