|Less institutionalized||More institutionalized|
|Explicitly political claims/goals||
E.g., Establishing social movement groups; holding protest events and fundraisers for political causes and entities.
E.g., Voting and participating in home-country party politics; lobbying the host-country on foreign policy; forming social movement organizations; institutional support for insurgencies or guerilla groups
|Implicitly political claims/goals||
E.g., Ad hoc fundraising for humanitarian emergencies; delivering aid in person, contributing to reconstruction efforts.
E.g, Establishing development and relief organizations, such as hometown associations (HTAs).