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Table 1 Varieties of Political Transnational Action

From: Suppressing transnationalism: bringing constraints into the study of transnational political action

  Less institutionalized More institutionalized
Explicitly political claims/goals IV.
E.g., Establishing social movement groups; holding protest events and fundraisers for political causes and entities.
I.
E.g., Voting and participating in home-country party politics; lobbying the host-country on foreign policy; forming social movement organizations; institutional support for insurgencies or guerilla groups
Implicitly political claims/goals III.
E.g., Ad hoc fundraising for humanitarian emergencies; delivering aid in person, contributing to reconstruction efforts.
II.
E.g, Establishing development and relief organizations, such as hometown associations (HTAs).