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Table 3 Use of ‘trafficking or smuggling’ across approaches (main approach in bold)

From: Managing or restricting movement? Diverging approaches of African and European migration governance

  Bilateral approach Regional approach Global approach Total
African documents / 762 (84%) 148 (16%) 910
EU-African documents / 107 (37%) 185 (63%) 292
EU documents 186 (75%) 10 (4%) 51 (21%) 247