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Table 2 Categories of refugee and other forcibly displaced persons’ disadvantages

From: Mapping differential vulnerabilities and rights: ‘opening’ access to social protection for forcibly displaced populations

Determinant of vulnerability Examples of manifestations
Displacement-specific Intensified Bureaucratically imposed Over-representation
Spatial / environmental Restrictions on movement (e.g. encampment). Unfamiliarity with surroundings (unsure about rights and access). Increase in gender-based violence Family Split Lack of knowledge (of e.g. rights, opportunities for transport) Double intensity for women and dependents Use of local languages (can’t understand access rules) Health risks associated with informal settlements (difficult to spend time accessing).
Socio-political Lack of representation (ineligible to access, camps run without representation) Uncertainty interacting with govt/agencies (opaque institutional complaints mechanisms) Discrimination in access to services; (ineligible to access). Gender-bias in legislation Restrictions on political activities in camp esp. for women and youth (inability to express voice).
Socio-cultural Xenophobia (discrimination in access) Social discrimination based on ethnicity, language, illegal status, gender and age (discrimination in provision). Additional stigmatising requirements to access services (required to show additional eligibility documents) Social perceptions of ‘criminal poor’ (additional scrutiny of access documents)
  1. Source: Adapted from Sabates-Wheeler and Waite (2003, p. 13)