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Table 2 Pairwise comparisons of marginal linear predictions obtained from fixed effect models of refugee migrants on all low-wage occupations (ISCO 5 + 9) and for service and shop (ISCO 5) and elementary (ISCO 9) occupations, respectively. Marginal effects and standard errors (within brackets) are reported for annual changes (5) and at 5-year intervals (6). Significant at 10% (a), 5% (b) and 1% (c)

From: Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU15

  (5a) LWO (5b) Service (5c) Elementary (6a) LWO (6b) Service (6c) Elementary
REFMIG # UK & IRL 6.852c (2.397) 0.916 (2.217) 5.936c (1.233) 4.139 (7.393) −6.314 (6.214) 10.453b (3.909)
REFMIG # CONTINENTAL 1.482b (0.641) 1.169b (0.593) 0.313 (0.330) 1.797 (1.931) 0.967 (1.623) 0.831 (1.021)
REFMIG # NORDIC 0.118 (0.528) − 0.391 (0.488) 0.508a (0.272) 0.564 (1.385) −0.524 (1.164) 1.089 (0.732)
REFMIG SOUTH 24.238c (3.165) 17.144c (2.927) 7.094c (1.629) 32.922c (5.971) 26.957c (5.019) 5.965a (3.157)
Institution Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Globalization Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Technology Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Controllers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Year FE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
R2 0.694 0.729 0.415 0.713 0.786 0.485
N 363 363 363 80 80 80
  1. 1: Model 6a-c are estimated at 5-year intervals over the years 1997, 2002, 2007, 2012 and 2017
  2. 2: The following variables are included: institutional (EU25, collective bargaining, protection against dismissals and temporary work), globalization (import share, FDI share of GDP), technology (investments, labour productivity, human capital and technological change) and controllers (wage levels and distribution and size of the economy)