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Table 1 Proposals for data and research: Thematic Session I Human rights of all migrants, social inclusion, cohesion and all forms of discrimination, including racism, xenophobia and intolerance

From: Data and research to inform global policy: the global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration

(a) Concepts and Data
 Issues Brief:
  Specification of concepts of situational and embodied vulnerability
  Establish a common conceptual understanding of migrants in vulnerable situations
  Need for data on deaths to migrants during migratory processes
  Need for data on human rights violations to migrants
  Need for data on detention of children, by grounds for detention, globally and nationally.
  Need for data on reasons for migration
  Need for data on vulnerability of migrants and changes in vulnerabilities over time
  Need for data on vulnerability of migrants and changes in vulnerabilities over life course
  Need for specification of vulnerabilities throughout the migratory processes (place of origin, en route, at borders and destination)
  Need for data and monitoring of children during migratory process
  Data on human rights violations and abuse of migrants; information on access to justice and protection
  Need for disaggregated data on migrants in detention (age, sex and migratory status)
  Maintenance of privacy and data collection principles
 Co-facilitators Summary:
  Broaden conceptualization of intolerance
  Develop definitions of key migration terms, especially with regards to vulnerabilities
  Collection of data to detect xenophobia, racism and discrimination (in partnership with human rights institutions and also migrants)
  Specify and clarify concepts of migration, inclusion, integration and vulnerabilities
  Data needed to support safeguarding of human rights of migrants
  Data on levels and patterns of discrimination; data at the local level
  Collection of data on hate speech and crimes
  Information on degree to which government programs and practices adhere to international law regarding human rights (i.e. identify gaps in coverage)
  Collection of representative and disaggregated data on well-being of migrants
  Collection of representative and disaggregated data on human rights among migrants
 Stakeholders
  Specification of concepts of voluntary return migration
  Indicators of migration policy effectiveness
  Coverage and characteristics of child migrant populations
  improved data on irregular migration
  Inclusion of migrants in process of data collection; inclusion of voices of migrants in data analysis
  Use open-ended questions to determine claims of migrants
  Attend to effective collection of information from persons among at risk groups of migrants
  Accessibility of data on migration flows
  Accessibility of data at local levels
  Data analysis of migration must be placed in context
  Development of indicators of child migration and child migrant welfare
  Careful consideration of the interpretation of data on children and the specific identification and inclusion of adolescents among migrant children
  Enhanced training in use of available data, migration analysis and interpretation of migration data and research
  Maintain standards of data privacy
  Monitor mis-use of data
  Incorporate firewalls between migrant data sources and law enforcement
(b) Descriptive analysis
 Issues Brief:
  Levels of abuse, discrimination, exploitation among migrants, by migrant status (regular, irregular)
  Levels of access to redress to human rights violations among migrants, by migrant status (regular, irregular)
  Experience of migrants in detention; conditions of detention; effect of detention
  Need for data on variation of vulnerabilities by social and demographic characteristics
  Trends in use of migrant detention in countries
 Co-facilitators Summary:
  Compare migrants and nationals in relationship to national legislations
  Need for disaggregation by age, gender and disability status to compare vulnerabilities within context of national policies
  Profile contributions of migrants at local, regional, national and international scale
  Describe national policies on migrants’ access to health care
  Describe national policies on migrants’ access to education
  Describe health status and needs of migrant women, children and persons with disabilities
 Stakeholders
  Migration decision-making among irregular migrants
  Violence against migrants by social demographic characteristics
  Levels and patterns of discrimination among migrant works, by gender and age
  Levels of education, and educational opportunities among migrant children
  Document housing and health characteristics of migrants
  Specification of the migration characteristics and risks to adolescent migrants
  Health status and risks of migrants, by migration status, demographic characteristics, geography and over time
  Geographic patterns of migration including irregular migration
  Levels and patterns of privatization of detention facilities/programs
  Patterns of human rights violations in country of flight
  Representativeness of political parties within countries of immigration
  National and intra-national variation in models of enforcement
  Attitudes toward migrants and migration
  Trends and geographic variation in opportunities for migration
(c) Explanatory Analysis
 Issues Brief:
  Relationship between conditions of migration (safe and regular) migration and benefits of migration for migrants
  Relationship between conditions of migration (safe and regular) migration and benefits of migration for countries (of origin, and of destination)
  Relationship between regularization of migrant status and vulnerability
  Relationship between regularization of migrant status and social inclusion
  Relationship between level of irregular migration and trust in state capacities to manage migration
  Relationship of ‘deep-seated xenophobia’ to human rights violations against migrants
  Relationship between social support for migrants and violation of immigration procedures
  Relationship between policies of criminalization and exclusion and deterrence to irregular migration
  Relationship between policies of criminalization and exclusion and well-being of migration
  Relationship between policies of criminalization and exclusion and social inclusion of migrants in society
  Relationship between the migration process and health of migrants
  Effect of linguistic and cultural differences on migrants’ access to and experience with law and administrative processes.
  Risks of statelessness among children born during migration (‘migratory context’)
  Effects of migratory process on health of migrants, including those with pre-existing chronic health conditions
  Relationship of conditions in countries of origin on changing vulnerabilities of migrants
  Relationship of perception of level of irregular migration and negativity/response to migrants
  Effects of detention on migrant health
  Effect of migratory status of children on child labor force activities
 Co-facilitators Summary:
  Relationship between social inclusion of migrants and sustainable development
  Human rights violations as a driver of migration
  Effect of transit on human rights violations of migrants
  Relationship between border control and detention policies and stigmatization of migrants
  Relationship of whole of society approach to promoting social inclusion
  Relationship between social demographic characteristics of migrants (age, gender, disabilities) and forms of discrimination
  Effect of ‘whole of government’ approach in promoting social inclusion and integration among migrants
  Role of public-private partnerships and migrant organizations in promoting social inclusion and integration among migrants
  Effect of stigma on social in/exclusion
  Effect of [irregular] migration status on social inclusion
  Effect of skills recognition on social inclusion
  Effect of stigma on access to preventive care and on general public health
  [Evidence on [under] utilization of health systems among migrants
  Effect of [irregular] migration status on psychological well-being
  Relationship between migratory status and access to integration support and service provision
  Relationship between educational exclusion on well-being of migrant children
  Effect of educational exclusion on social cohesion and discontent
  Effect of exclusion on level of trust in communities
  Relationship of level of willingness among migrants for integration and public perception of migrants
  Relationship of coordination among governments and stakeholders to reducing discrimination and intolerance
  Analysis of root causes of racism and xenophobia
  Relationship of access to social services and employments to patterns and levels of social inclusion
  More research on causes of intolerant rhetoric
  Relationship between misperception in public discourse regarding migration and migrants and levels of racism, xenophobia and intolerance
 Stakeholders
  Relationship between human rights protections within migration and national policy and safety and protection of migrants
  Role on migration policy and governance in creation of irregular status among migrants, particularly workers
  Effect of electoral politics on levels of violence and xenophobia towards migrants
  Effect of religious dogma on levels of violence and xenophobia towards migrants
  Effect of gender equity on levels of societal inclusion and tolerance
  Effect of religious instruction on levels of societal inclusion and tolerance
  Migration as a determinant of health; health as a determinant of migration
  Interrelationships among migration, communities of origin and destination, and public health
  Relationship between patterns of privatization of detention facilities/programs and violence against and security of migrants
  The effect of level of migration flows on access to legal and judicial protections of migrants
  Effect of existence of human rights protection infrastructure on levels of trust between migrants and government office, particularly law enforcement
  Effects of different models of detention and enforcement on migrants, and on host communities
  Relationship of gender-sensitivity in migration governance and human rights among women and gender equity
  Relationship of concepts of migrant ‘illegality’ and general patterns of racial and ethnic tolerance and discrimination in society
  Role of ‘firewalls’ on levels and nature of migrant inclusion in sectors of society
  Role of migrants and migrant groups in developing and implementing programs of discrimination
  Determinants of access to justice and protection, by migrant status (regular, irregular)
  Role of stigma in process of reintegration of migrants into communities of origin
  Comparative analysis of the relative social costs of migration between countries of origin and countries of destination
  Relationship between labour market integration and social inclusion of migrants
  Effect of informal economy on human rights violations on migrant workers
  Effect of irregular status on human rights violations on migrant workers
  Role of trade unions and workers’ associations on social and economic inclusion of migrants
  Role of political inclusion and participation of migrants in promoting social inclusion and democratic societies
  Effect of migration and other dimensions of globalization on populist/nationalistic political activism
  Determinants of political participation of migrants
  Role of citizenship/naturalization in promoting inclusion social, economic and political inclusion of migrants
  Role of extending voting rights/opportunities among migrants in promoting social, economic and political inclusion of migrants
  Factors contributing to fact-based dialogue about the effects of migration
  Role of migrant and local governance and stakeholders in migration policy effectiveness
  Role of ‘interactive multiculturalist policy’ in promoting national identity
  Role of inclusion of migrant is city governance and administration on promoting inclusiveness as national level
  Effect of attitudes toward migrants on maximizing positive effects of migration on society
  Determinants of risks and vulnerabilities among migrants
  Effects of anti-trafficking efforts on experience of women migrants
  Effects of educational opportunities (and lack thereof) on development of child migrants
  Effect of media and language on public opinion and attitudes toward migrants
  Effect of public leadership on public opinion and attitudes toward migrants
  Factors contributing to levels and nature of access to asylum applications
(d) Models and Estimation
 Issues Brief:
 Co-facilitators Summary:
  Trend in rise of racism, xenophobia and intolerance
  Trends and geographic variation in racism, xenophobia and intolerance against migrants
  Trends in discrimination
 Stakeholders
  Emerging patterns of migration
  Emerging patterns of xenophobia and intolerance
  Independent monitoring of quality of migrant detention facilities and programs
  Emerging trends and patterns in aspirations of migrants (and non-migrants)
  Trends and new patterns of migrant vulnerabilities (and resilience)
  Monitor effectiveness of the implementation of policy
  Role of migration in complementing national demographic change
  Monitor trends in arbitrary detention
  Human rights as a cross cutting theme in analysis and monitoring of migration
  Gender as a lens in analysis and monitoring of migration
  Inclusion of civil society, including migrant organizations, in monitoring, setting of benchmarks and accountability of policy implementation and evaluation
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