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Table 2 Proposals for data and research: Thematic Session II Addressing drivers of migration, including adverse effects of climate change, natural disasters and human-made crises, through protection and assistance, sustainable development, poverty eradication, conflict prevention and resolution

From: Data and research to inform global policy: the global compact for safe, orderly and regular migration

(a) Concepts and Data
 Issues Brief:
  Comprehensive, comparable and disaggregated data are needed for understanding of causes of migration
  Need for longitudinal data to adequately grasp longer-term processes and evolutions driving migratory patterns, such as climate change, demographic transitions, and structural transformation.
  Need to strengthen all national data resources to include gender and age disaggregation in national censuses, surveys and administrative sources.
  Promote international cooperation among countries and other stakeholders in data collection, analysis and dissemination of migration data
 Co-facilitators Summary:
  Specification of concepts of human-made crisis
  Specification of armed conflict as driver of migration
  Specification of causes of migration vis a vis failure to adapt to changing conditions versus adaptation strategies.
  Need for longitudinal data on environmental change and migration
  Need for data disaggregation for group specific vulnerabilities, risks and propensities
  Need for international coordination, harmonization and interoperability of data collection and analysis
  Critical analysis of migration categories in relationship to climate change and environmental crises
  Analysis of migration as a multi-causal phenomenon
  Information on gaps in protection of populations
  Promote research and data collection, including longitudinal data, that reflects multi-dimensional nature of migration
  Collect migration data at local and household levels
  Integrate qualitative and quantitative data on migration
  Collect migration data over time, and longitudinally
  Harmonize methodologies of data collection and analysis among national institutions, and among
  Promote sharing of data and approaches to analysis within and among nations
  Strengthen the capacities of national institutions to ensure data gathering, disaggregation and analysis
 Stakeholders:
  Definition of migration within context of freedom of movement
  Specification of concepts of environmental migration
  Specification of concepts of adaptation
  Develop methods of climate risk analysis
  Blurring of categories of forced migration
  Documentation of reasons for migration
  Data on levels and locations of armed conflict
  Data on climate, environmental and population change, by geography
  Data on reasons for migration
  Need for data on slow onslaught environmental change in relationship to migration
  Data on population displacement (internal and international) due to environmental disasters
  Collection of data on obstacles to migration
  Need for data on unprotected groups of forced migrants and their characteristics
  Need for longitudinal data and analysis of migration and development
  Need for longitudinal data and analysis of migration and development
  Migration processes in rural and agricultural areas
  Improve comparability of migration data for regional analysis
(b) Descriptive analysis
 Issues Brief:
  Description of characteristics, vulnerabilities of migrants versus resident populations at different stages of crisis
 Co-facilitators Summary:
  Description of needs and vulnerabilities of all migrants, not just those qualifying as refugees under the Convention.
  Gender differences in characteristics of all migrants, including refugees and nonrefugees
  Determination of needs and characteristics of different types of migrants, including refugees and nonrefugees
  Gender differences in the migration process
  Develop accurate and country-specific migration profiles
 Stakeholders:
  Social and economic characteristics of persons displaced by environmental crises, by length of displacement
  Document role of women in peace keeping and peace building projects and sustainable development
  Recognition of contribution and resilience of women migrants
  Description of resilience, capacity of communities and community organization vis a vis climate and environmental change
  Description on migration processes in rural and agricultural areas
  Trends in sudden onset hazard events by geography
  Regional analysis of migration
  Regional analysis of response to migration and migrants
  Patterns of innovation in agricultural sectors
(c) Explanatory Analysis
 Issues Brief:
  Research on scalar dimensions of drivers of migration (geographic scale, location, distance and duration) in relationship to the effects of migration (to inform) effective efforts both protect migrants and increase the benefits of migration
  Interactions between drivers of migration and migration decision-making regarding channels and means of migration
  Improved understanding of the variation in perception of risk of effects of climate change
  Effects cross border environmental change and crisis on migration and mobility
  Particular vulnerability of migrants with regions with emerging conflict and unrest.
  Longer-term effects of conflict on livelihoods, health and security
 Co-facilitators Summary:
  Interrelationships between migration and development
  Relationship between demographic changes (change in growth, distribution and age composition) as cause of migration
  Improved understanding of the drivers of migration that promote development
  Relationship between slow-onset climate change and socioeconomic vulnerabilities
  Effects of environmental disasters on internal displacement and on international migration
  Relationship among climate change, disasters, and migration
  Multi-dimensional and intersecting drivers of migration requires a holistic perspective on causes (and consequences) of migration
  Drivers of internal displacement and effects on other forms of migration
  Relationship between conditions of migration to development effects of migration
  Analysis of migration at different scales – household and national, regional
  Analysis of migration as a family livelihood strategy in response to poverty
  Effects of global skills partnerships on increasing the benefits of migration in meeting labour market needs
  Conceptualization of migration as adaption strategy within context of climate change
  Relate [multidimensional, holistic] perspectives and research on migration to frameworks relating to
  Address gender dimensions of the drivers of migration, at all stages of the migratory process
 Stakeholders:
  Drivers of dangerous migration
  Role of armed violence in forced migration
  Determinants of risk-related migration
  Determinants of non-migration
  Social determinants of migration
  Role of lack of economic opportunities as driver of migration; breakdown of social contract
  Perception of lack of opportunity as motivating factor migration
  Constraints on maximizing economic opportunities
  Human rights abuses as driver of migration
  Effects of working conditions (decent jobs) on push for out migration
  Effect of levels of engagement of humanitarian law on levels and nature of forced migration
  Role of perception of environmental change in mobility decision-making
  Role of local governments in promoting positive effects of migration
  Role of community and regional contextual factors on migration decision-making
  Effects of on slow onset environmental change on migration
  Role of households in migration decision-making within context of environmental change
  Relationships among poverty, length of displacement by environmental disasters and human rights abuses
  Linkages between climate change and international migration
  Factors contributing to building community resilience and adaptive strategies
  Effects of development infrastructure and land use change on population movements
  Role of remittances in household responses to environmental change, hazards
  Assess role of women in peace keeping and peace building projects and sustainable development
  Role of civil society organizations in response to migration and protection, needs of migrants
  Contextual analysis of drivers of migration; regional analysis
  Role of diaspora in supporting return migration
  Mixing and multiple drivers of migrations as a challenge for migration policy
  Interregional differences in migration
  Role of non-economic factors influencing migration; importance of social, transnational networks
  Implications of countries of origin becoming countries of destination
  Effects of investment climate on the effects of remittances
  Factors contributing to the transfer and effects of social remittances
  Two-way relationships between migration and development
(d) Research Design, Models and Estimation
 Issues Brief:
  Population growth and dynamics in relationship to prospects for development at national, and regional scales
  Models of migration propensities, plans and behaviors
  Estimation of future migration flows in relationship to the effects of climate change
  Modeling positive choice in migration decision-making in relationship to different stages, forms of environmental change
  Modelling effects of trends in development, political stability and migration opportunities in relationship to different forms of migration
  Modelling effects of improved governance (human rights protection, nondiscriminatory labor practices, provision of health and welfare services) on migration and the effect of migration
  “Promote international repositories of analysis on migration drivers and enhance the use of evidence for policy formulation and programme design, including in monitoring and evaluation systems.”
 Co-facilitators Summary:
  Projection of population movements resulting from environmental change (need for longitudinal data)
  Monitor emergence and decline of crises in relationship to displacement and migration
  Predication/anticipation of conflict and crisis at national and local levels
 Stakeholders:
  Models of adaptive strategies for environmental change
  Models of different forms and spatial-temporal patterns of environmental change
  Need for transdisciplinary, multidisciplinary perspectives on environmental change and migration
  Projection of population and labour force, by geographic region
  Models of environmental disasters and migration
  Implementing climate risk analysis
  Modeling trends in poverty reduction and migration (‘migration hump’ analysis)
  Imagining migration as a choice versus necessity
  Modeling national mitigation strategies in relationship to environmental migrations
  Estimation of vulnerable households and communities at risk of displacement by environmental disasters
  Modeling interactions among population growth, urbanization, rising consumption and population displacement
  Projection of population by vulnerabilities of children to effects of climate change, and exacerbation of inequalities among and within countries
  Incorporate voices of migrants as ‘experts in their own conditions’ in monitoring, research and analysis
  Establish indicators for accountability
  Identify/monitor issues which are under researched
  Promote action research concerning migration
  Adopt robust results framework
  Conduct case studies of innovations and best practices in migration governance, and fostering positive effects of migration for development
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