|Closure vs. civil society activism||Tolerance||Institutional activism vs. anti-refugees mobilizations||Cooperation|
|Dynamics||Local authorities try to prevent non-State actors from helping refugees||Local authorities do not hamper non-State actors’ activism||Groups of residents loudly protest against institutional pro-asylum seekers initiatives||Local authorities and non-State actors cooperate in fostering asylum-seeker reception|
|Some empirical evidence (Italy)||Ventimiglia, Saronno, Udine||
Centro Astalli (Roma, Palermo, Catania, Trento); NGOs’ clinics in Lombardy;|
network Scuole senza permesso.
|Castrovillari, San Giorgio Ionico, Brindisi, Gorino||SPRAR system implementation in Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna|