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Table 3 Typology of the different relations between state and non-State actors at the local level

From: Multilevel governance in trouble: the implementation of asylum seekers’ reception in Italy as a battleground

  Closure vs. civil society activism Tolerance Institutional activism vs. anti-refugees mobilizations Cooperation
Dynamics Local authorities try to prevent non-State actors from helping refugees Local authorities do not hamper non-State actors’ activism Groups of residents loudly protest against institutional pro-asylum seekers initiatives Local authorities and non-State actors cooperate in fostering asylum-seeker reception
Some empirical evidence (Italy) Ventimiglia, Saronno, Udine Centro Astalli (Roma, Palermo, Catania, Trento); NGOs’ clinics in Lombardy;
network Scuole senza permesso.
Castrovillari, San Giorgio Ionico, Brindisi, Gorino SPRAR system implementation in Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna