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Table 5 GDP and GNI per capita in $ and HDI, Turkey compared with its neighbours and some relevant sending countries (2012) (World Bank 2018d, UNDP 2017)

From: Shifts in the global migration order and migration transitions in Europe: the cases of Turkey and Russia

Country GDP per capita Difference with Turkey in % GNI per capita Difference with Turkey in % HDI
Greece 22,083 220 25,460 254 0,86
Russia 14,037 140 12,700 127 0.788
Kazakhstan 11,935 120 9750 97 0.754
Turkey 10,666 100 10,830 100 0.722
Azerbaijan 7392 74 6030 60 0.734
Bulgaria 6986 70 15,390 153 0,782
Iran 6815 (2011) 68 4290 (2009) 43 0.742
Iraq 6455 65 5870 59 0.59
Ukraine 3867 39 3500 35 0.74
Georgia 3508 35 3280 32 0.745
Armenia 3338 33 3720 37 0.729
Syria 3289 33 2610 (2010) 26 0.648
Morocco 2902 29 2950 30 0.591
Moldova 2038 20 2250 22 0.66
Pakistan 1290 13 1260 13 0.515
Senegal 1032 10 1040 10 0.47
Afghanistan 687 0.6 570 0.6 0.175