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Table 1 Explanatory model for group responsiveness to direct democratic elections

From: The integrative force of political institutions? Direct democracy and voter turnout across ethnic and nativity groups

  3rd generation plus 2nd generation 1st generation
Asian Hispanic Asian Hispanic
Experience with democratic elections Ref. cat. similar similar lower similar
Non-electoral political mobilization Ref. cat. lower higher lower higher
Activating effect via DD compared to 3rd generation plus Ref. cat. same or lower same or higher lower same or higher
  1. DD Direct democracy