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Table 2 Logistic regression for individual voting and voting gaps between ethnic and nativity groups

From: The integrative force of political institutions? Direct democracy and voter turnout across ethnic and nativity groups

  Vote (all respondents)
M1 Asian nativity M2 Hispanic nativity
Individual covariates
 Asian nativity (Ref.cat: 3rd gen.d)
  1st. gen. Asian −0.66 (0.02)a
  2nd gen. Asian −0.18 (0.03)a
 Hispanic nativity (Ref.cat: 3rd gen.d)
  1st. gen. Hispanic −0.25 (0.02)a
  2nd gen. Hispanic −0.13 (0.02)a
 Age 0.03 (0.00)a 0.03 (0.00)a
 Gender (male) −0.05 (0.01)a −0.05 (0.01)a
 Marital status (Ref.cat: divorced)
  Married 0.43 (0.01)a 0.42 (0.01)a
  Single 0.23 (0.01)a 0.22 (0.01)a
  Separated −0.07 (0.02)a −0.06 (0.02)b
  Widowed −0.07 (0.02)a −0.08 (0.01)a
 Education (Ref.cat: no/primary educ.)
  Secondary. educ. 0.60 (0.01)a 0.59 (0.01)a
  Tertiary educ. 1.12 (0.01)a 1.10 (0.01)a
 Labor force 0.17 (0.01)a 0.17 (0.01)a
 Black 0.21 (0.01)a 0.21 (0.01)a
State covariates
 Political ideology −0.01 (0.00)a −0.02 (0.00)a
 Organizational density 0.04 (0.02)c 0.05 (0.02)c
 Unemployment 0.02 (0.01)c 0.02 (0.01)b
 GDP (log) 0.12 (0.14) 0.12 (0.14)
 Urbanization −0.01 (0.00) −0.01 (0.00)
 Foreign-born share −0.01 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00)
State FEs yes yes
Year FEs yes yes
AIC 254,189 259,089
N 216,315 220,598
  1. Logistic regression coefficients (robust standard errors clustered by state in parentheses). All models include state and year fixed effects (states = 50, years = midterm elections 2002, 2006, 2010). Significance codes: 0.001 < a, 0.01 < b, 0.05 < c