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Table 2 TOP-3 routes to Europe of African migrants (1975–2008), by origin and country of residence

From: Three sub-Saharan migration systems in times of policy restriction

Country of OriginCountry of residence1st route2nd route3rd routeN
DR CongoBelgiumDRC-Belgium (70%)DRC-Angola-Belgium (4%)DRC-France-Belgium (4%)278
UKDRC-UK (55%)DRC-Belgium-UK (8%)DRC-France-UK (7%)149
GhanaUKGhana-UK (76%)Ghana-Nigeria-UK (4%)Ghana-Germany-UK (3%)149
NetherlandsGhana-Netherlands (65%)Ghana-Germany-Netherlands (6%)Ghana-Italy-Netherlands (5%)273
SenegalFranceSenegal-France (79%)Senegal-Spain-France (4%)Senegal-Morocco-France (3%)200
ItalySenegal-Italy (69%)Senegal-France-Italy (15%)Senegal-Spain-Italy (4%)203
SpainSenegal-Spain (64%)Senegal-Morocco-Spain (9%)Senegal-Italy-Spain (4%)200
  1. Source: MAFE biographical surveys in Europe. Weighted percentages
  2. Population: Migrants aged 18 and over, living in Europe at the time of the survey
  3. Routes indicate the series of countries through which migrants travelled (in that order) and the percentage of migrants having used the route. Only countries in which migrants spent at least one night are included