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Table 4 Codification examples of policies regulating the entry, integration, and return of migrants

From: Three sub-Saharan migration systems in times of policy restriction

Entry Integration Return
Travel visa.
Ex: Introduction of travel visa
= + 1 for all migrants
Carrier liabilities
Ex: Increased penalties for carriers of undocumented migrants
= + 1 for irregular migrants
Surveillance technologies
Ex: Creation of border surveillance system
= + 1 for irregular migrants
Work permit
Ex: Reduction of catalogue of occupations in short supply and of recruitment at source
= + 1 for high-skilled and low-skilled workers
Ex: Introduction of quota for non-EU workers in firms
= + 1 for low-skilled workers
Entry visa
Ex: New requirements for students to be sponsored
= + 1 for students
Points-based system
Ex: Creation of points based system for highly educated migrants
= −1 for high-skilled workers
Ex: Detention in prison introduced for irregular migrants
= + 1 for irregular migrants
Surveillance technology
Ex: Series of laws that reduce rights of foreigners and introduce more control and sanctions
= + 1 for all migrants
Employer liabilities
Ex: more control of employers and sanctions for irregular work
= + 1 for irregular migrants
Stay permit
Ex: simplification of asylum procedures
= − 1 for asylum seekers
Work permit
Ex: Procedure to give family members access to work
= − 1 for family members
Ex: Regularisation programme
= − 1 for irregular migrants
Access to permanent residency
Ex: grounds for withdrawing residency permit limited
= − 1 for all migrants (excepted irregular)
Language, housing, and cultural integration programmes
Ex: widening of housing and funding for foreign workers beyond Algerians in France
= − 1 for all (excepted irregular)
Access to citizenship
Ex: new requirements for naturalisation
= + 1 for all migrants (excepted irregular)
Access to social benefit and socioeconomic rights
Ex: Access to social system granted to legal and irregular migrants
= − 1 for all migrants
Access to justice and political rights
Ex: Right to appeal in court
= − 1 for all migrants
Ex: Introduction of on-the-spot expulsions for irregular migrants
= + 1 for irregular migrants
Reintegration and return program
Ex: New return scheme for asylum seekers
= + 1 for asylum seekers
Institutional capacities
Ex: Creation of deportation centres
= + 1 for irregular migrants
  1. + 1: increasing right restrictions, − 1: decreasing right restrictions
  2. Table adapted from Flahaux et al. (2014)