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Table 1 Short-term and long-term integration and exclusion of migrant groups in Luxembourg

From: Addressing seeming paradoxes by embracing them: small state theory and the integration of migrants

  Short-term Long-term
Asylum Seekers 88% of refugees are satisfied with their life in Luxembourg overall - housing and services are provided by the state; 68% acceptance rate of new applications from asylum seekers 70% find employment but only 50% have long-term contracts; 21% remain in precarious work; Dormitories remain physically isolated from neighboring towns which limits social interaction.
High-skilled Migrants Continuous increase in numbers of residence permits issued to “salaried worker”, “European Blue Card” and “intra-corporate transferee” categories. 2018 law allows students and researchers to stay for 9 months after successfully completing studies;
Salaries not commensurate with costs of living, especially amongst em-ployees of the European Union; Facilitation of socio-political integration through multilevel European citizenship
Not citizens and therefore voting exclusion; High salaries and welfare rights support families but geographic segregation imposed by elevated housing costs hinders social cohesion.
Low-skilled Migrants Job market exclusion, especially due to language barriers;
EU citizens enjoy employment rates that are higher than rates for Luxembourgish citizens but third country nationals have low employment rates; trade unions and NGOs; mobilize migrant integration discourse
Local voting rights and access to welfare services (over-representation of third-country nationals);
inequalities in the educational system caused by social origin and the migra-tory context of pupils.
Third-country nationals over-represented in Social Inclusion Income Program (REVIS); Unemployment of native citizens was 3.9% in 2017, compared to 5.8% of EU-residents and 16.5% amongst third-country nationals.
Cross-border workers Represent 45% of the Luxembourgish work force;
Open borders, Schengen and cross border labor market; Increase in interim contracts and labor flexibility
Lack of welfare rights which remain national;
Economic integration of cross-border markets and economic inclusion
  1. Source: Table compiled by authors based on official data (2010s)