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Table 1 Country Characteristics

From: Campaigning across continents: how Latin American parties link up with migrant associations abroad

  Bolivia Ecuador
Freedom House Index (2018) 67/100 (partly free) 60/100 (partly free)
Perceptions of Electoral Integrity (last elections) 50/100 46/100
Incumbent President’s Party MAS-IPSP (2006–2019) Alianza País (2006 – present)
Gini Index (2018) 42.2 45.5
GDP per capita (2018) 3351.12 6213.87
Remittances as % of GDP (2018) 3.4% 2.8%
% abroad of the total population 7.46% 6.83%
Main settlement countries Argentina, Spain, USA, Brazil USA, Spain, Italy
% of the emigrant population that resides in Spain 19.34% 38.27%
Migration history to Spain 2002–2009 Two Phases: Late 1990s-2004 and 2007–2010
Main destinations in Spain Barcelona, Madrid, Murcia Madrid, Barcelona, Murcia
Background Rural Urban – rural
Skill Level Medium-low Medium-low
Sex Ratio 39% Men
61% Women
47% Men
53% Women
  1. Sources: Cebolla-Boado and López-Sala 2015, p. 269; Freedom House Index 2018; Hinojosa 2008, 2009; Estatistica INE 2016; United Nations 2015; World Bank 2018a, 2018b; Norris and Grömping 2019