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Table 7 Employment and income differentials for selected groups, native born and immigrants arriving from 2004 to 2014, Canada and Sweden, 2015/2016

From: Polish immigrants and their children in Canada and Sweden, employment status and income patterns

  Canada Sweden
coef se sig coef se sig  
Female
 Employment (marginal effects)
  Observations 6,848,585    2,110,196    
  R2 0.10    0.15    
  Native-born, non Pole (comparison)        
  Immigrant from Poland − 0.32 0.02 *** − 0.45 0.01 ***
  Other Immigrant − 0.36 0.01 *** − 0.61 0.00 ***
 Log of Job related income
  Observations 5,954,550    1,891,668    na
  R2 0.12    0.19    
  Native-born, non Pole (comparison)        
  Immigrant from Poland − 0.99 0.04 *** − 1.06 0.01 ***  
  Other Immigrant − 1.05 0.01 *** − 1.24 0.00 ***  
 Percent rank of income
  Observations 5,954,550    1,891,668    
  R2 0.18    0.26    
  Native-born, non Pole (comparison)        
  Immigrant from Poland − 0.28 0.01 *** − 0.29 0.00 ***  
  Other Immigrant − 0.28 0.00 *** − 0.29 0.00 ***  
Male
 Employment (marginal effects)
  Observations 6,642,675    2,191,639    
  R2 0.11    0.12    
  Native-born, non Pole (comparison)        
  Immigrant from Poland − 0.11 0.03 *** − 0.29 0.01 ***
  Other Immigrant − 0.21 0.01 *** − 0.48 0.00 ***
 Log of Job related income
  Observations 6,086,480    1,966,344    na
  R2 0.14    0.14    
  Native-born, non Pole (comparison)        
  Immigrant from Poland − 0.63 0.04 *** − 0.79 0.01 ***  
  Other Immigrant − 0.86 0.01 *** − 1.04 0.00 ***  
 Percent rank of income
  Observations 6,086,480    1,966,344    
  R2 0.19    0.23    
  Native-born, non Pole (comparison)        
  Immigrant from Poland − 0.19 0.01 *** − 0.26 0.00 ***
  Other Immigrant − 0.26 0.00 *** − 0.29 0.00 ***
  1. The 2016 Census of Canada is a 25% sample of Canadian households. As per Statistics Canada requirement we show the weighted number of observations
  2. Significance: *0.1; **0.05; ***0.01
  3. Controls: Regressions control for age, age squared, years in the host country for immigrants, years in the host country squared, schooling, marital status, number of children and residence in the 3 largest cities
  4. Indicates that the coefficients for Canada and Sweden are statistically different from each other