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Table 3 Conceptual and methodological implications of the theoretical model proposed and empirical findings

From: Multifocality and opportunity structure: towards a mixed embeddedness model for transnational migrant entrepreneurship

Conceptual contributions Methodological implications Empirical findings
Multifocality: the act of simultaneously taking into account multiple places and multiple groups
Multifocality in places
– To consider the conditions of other countries (country of origin and third countries), other than the country of destination – To investigate the role of conditions of different contexts and how these influence the respondents’ business pattern
– To ask what countries and contexts the entrepreneurs are linked to, the conditions of these countries, and how these have influenced the respondents’ business pattern
– Respondents combine features from several places in order to create or seize business opportunities for their business, the country of residence and that of origin (Morocco), but also third countries
– Multifocality in places is key to linking previously unconnected opportunities
Multifocality in groups
– To consider the possibility that entrepreneurs feel they belong to and/or are influenced by different groups (multi-faceted identity) – To investigate the role of multiple groups (not only the “ethnic” group) and how these influence the respondents’ business pattern
– To gather information on the role of persons belonging to different groups and the characteristics of these groups (not only the “ethnic” group)
– Respondents generally do not combine resources and opportunities linked to different groups
– When they target a specific group, this is the Moroccan group
– Multifocality in groups plays a minor role, compared to multifocality in places
Group modes of behaviours: set of habits, attitudes, inclinations, and role models distinctive to a certain group
– To consider that specific habits and attitudes that are distinctive to a certain group might influence the entrepreneurs’ business opportunities – To investigate the role of these habits and attitudes in reference to multiple groups
– To gather information on the entrepreneurs’ perceptions of these group habits and attitudes, and how they influence their business pattern
– Respondents take advantage of these modes of behaviour (mostly from the co-national group), which contribute to create the opportunity structure that they exploit
– Group modes of behaviour are key in influencing the economic/market dimension of the opportunity structure