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Table 2 Variables used for regression analyses, taken from Arab Barometer Round 5

From: Re-thinking the drivers of regular and irregular migration: evidence from the MENA region

Variable name Original question Recoded responses
Outcome variables
Propensity to emigrate “Some people decide to leave their countries to live somewhere else. Have you ever thought about emigrating from your country?” 1 “Yes”; 0 “No”
Willingness to do so without papers “Would you consider leaving [COUNTRY] even if you didn’t have the required papers that officially allowed you to leave?” 1 “Yes”; 0 “No”
Explanatory variables
Socio-demographics
Male Recorded by interviewer 1 (male); 0 (female)
Age “Could you please tell me your approximate age?” 0–99
University “What is your highest level of education?” 1 if “university”; 0 for all other responses
Unemployed “Are you … ?” 1 if “unemployed”; 0 for all other responses
Unmarried “What is your current social status?” 1 if “single/bachelor”; 0 for all other responses
High income “Is your net household income less than or greater than [MEDIAN INCOME IN LOCAL CURRENCY]?” 1 if median or more; 0 if below
Religious “In general, you would describe yourself as religious, somewhat religious, or not religious?” 1 if “religious”; 0 if “somewhat religious” or “not religious”
Political and economic context
Economic pessimism “What do you think will be the economic situation in your country during the next few years (2–3 years) compared to the current situation?” 1 “much better” to 5 “much worse”
Perceived democracy “Measuring the extent to which your country is democratic, on a scale from 0–10 with 0 meaning there is no democracy whatsoever and 10 meaning that it is democratic to the greatest extent possible. In your opinion, to what extent is your country democratic?” 0 “no democracy” to 10 “complete democracy”
Perceived corruption “To what extent do you think that there is corruption within the national state agencies and institutions in your country? “ 1 “not at all” to 4 “to a large extent” (original coding reversed)
Access to migration networks
Use social media “How many hours on a typical day do you spend on social media platforms [INTERVIEWER: IF ASKED SPECIFY SUCH AS FACEBOOK, TWITTER, OR WHATSAPP]?” 1 “not at all” to 5 “10 h or more”
Trust social media “To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statements. I trust the information provided by social media [INTERVIEWER: IF ASKED SPECIFY SUCH AS FACEBOOK, TWITTER, OR WHATSAPP] more than that provided by newspapers or TV news programs.” 1 “I strongly disagree” to 4 “I strongly agree (original coding reversed)
Receive remittances “Does your family receive remittances from someone living abroad?” 1 “we do not receive anything” to 4 “Yes, monthly” (original coding reversed)
Psychological factors
Feel free to make decision “To what extent do you agree with the following statement: “I feel I am free to make decisions for myself on how to live my life.”” 1 “I strongly disagree” to 4 “I strongly agree (original coding reversed)
Stress “In the past six months, how often did you feel so stressed that everything seemed to be a hassle?” 1 “Never” to 4 “Most of the time”
Depression “Life is overwhelming at times. In the past six months, how often did you feel so depressed that nothing could cheer you up?” 1 “Never” to 4 “Most of the time”
Interpersonal trust “Generally speaking, would you say that “Most people can be trusted” or “that you must be very careful in dealing with people”?” 1 “I must be very careful in dealing with people”; 2 “Most people can be trusted” (original coding reversed)