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Table 4 Logistic regression analyses of propensity to migrate without papers, among those thinking of migrating, by country

From: Re-thinking the drivers of regular and irregular migration: evidence from the MENA region

  Algeria Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Palestine Sudan Tunisia Yemen
Socio-demographics
Male 1.55*** (0.28) 0.60 (0.37) 0.73*** (0.19) 0.81*** (0.23) − 2.28 (1.84) 0.46 (0.34) 0.92*** (0.31) 2.10*** (0.24) 0.58** (0.23) 0.74*** (0.18) 1.01*** (0.24) 1.77*** (0.35)
Age − 0.05*** (0.02) − 0.03 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.01) − 0.00 (0.01) − 0.02 (0.07) − 0.02 (0.02) 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.01) − 0.01 (0.01) − 0.00 (0.01) − 0.00 (0.01)
University − 0.06 (0.06) − 0.13 (0.08) 0.00 (0.05) − 0.08 (0.06) − 0.21 (0.51) − 0.07 (0.09) − 0.26*** (0.09) − 0.22*** (0.05) 0.02 (0.05) − 0.02 (0.05) − 0.25*** (0.06) − 0.12** (0.05)
Unemployed 0.25 (0.26) 0.37 (0.37) 0.66*** (0.25) 0.33 (0.28) 2.82 (2.62) 0.13 (0.57) 0.80** (0.40) 0.58*** (0.20) 0.06 (0.29) − 0.31 (0.23) − 0.00 (0.24) 0.13 (0.26)
Unmarried 0.62** (0.29) 0.05 (0.38) 0.08 (0.22) − 0.23 (0.32) − 2.02 (1.75) − 0.00 (0.46) 0.17 (0.35) 0.57** (0.28) 0.52* (0.28) 0.25 (0.19) 0.50* (0.28) 0.29 (0.27)
High income − 0.56** (0.24) − 1.12*** (0.30) − 0.37** (0.17) − 0.50** (0.24) 1.81 (1.67) − 0.27 (0.43) 0.56* (0.32) 0.02 (0.19) − 0.56*** (0.21) − 0.51*** (0.17) − 0.46* (0.24) − 0.60*** (0.22)
Religious − 0.20 (0.29) 0.18 (0.33) 0.21 (0.18) 0.22 (0.24) − 0.44 (2.81) − 0.07 (0.38) 0.25 (0.34) − 0.22 (0.25) 0.03 (0.25) − 0.11 (0.18) 0.13 (0.26) − 0.73*** (0.26)
(Perceived) economic and political context
Economic pessimism 0.21** (0.10) 0.16 (0.14) 0.06 (0.07) 0.28*** (0.09) 0.19 (0.70) 0.05 (0.16) − 0.07 (0.12) 0.11 (0.08) 0.02 (0.10) 0.01 (0.07) 0.26*** (0.08) − 0.20** (0.10)
Perceived democracy − 0.00 (0.05) − 0.10 (0.07) − 0.05* (0.03) − 0.07 (0.04) − 0.33 (0.32) 0.10 (0.07) − 0.05 (0.06) − 0.16*** (0.05) − 0.08 (0.05) − 0.06 (0.04) − 0.06* (0.04) 0.02 (0.04)
Perceived corruption   0.06 (0.21) 0.17 (0.22) − 0.04 (0.16) − 1.00 (1.13) − 0.21 (0.29) 0.07 (0.18) 0.18 (0.14) − 0.10 (0.16) − 0.16 (0.10) 0.18 (0.20) 0.11 (0.15)
Access to migrant networks
Use social media 0.14 (0.14) − 0.18 (0.19) 0.10 (0.09) 0.29** (0.12) 0.48 (0.89) − 0.64*** (0.18) 0.27* (0.15) 0.10 (0.12) 0.01 (0.12) 0.03 (0.11) 0.29*** (0.10) − 0.12 (0.18)
Trust social media − 0.17 (0.14) − 0.00 (0.16) 0.18** (0.08) − 0.05 (0.13) 0.83 (0.88) − 0.08 (0.16) 0.21 (0.18) − 0.05 (0.11) − 0.00 (0.14) 0.14 (0.10) 0.19* (0.11) − 0.08 (0.13)
Receive remittances 0.01 (0.23) 0.05 (0.25) 0.16 (0.17) 0.12 (0.22) − 0.06 (1.67) 0.01 (0.30) 0.04 (0.32) 0.04 (0.14) 0.10 (0.15) − 0.05 (0.12) − 0.01 (0.15) 0.02 (0.14)
Psychological factors
Feel free to make decision − 0.11 (0.18) 0.02 (0.19) − 0.12 (0.12) − 0.16 (0.17) − 0.80 (1.05) − 0.18 (0.29) − 0.25 (0.23) 0.05 (0.14) − 0.06 (0.15) − 0.15 (0.14) 0.09 (0.15) − 0.12 (0.19)
Stress 0.05 (0.22) − 0.05 (0.25) − 0.04 (0.14) 0.06 (0.20) 0.39 (1.13) − 0.18 (0.33) 0.05 (0.25) 0.16 (0.15) 0.23 (0.21) 0.16 (0.16) 0.09 (0.14) − 0.03 (0.20)
Depression 0.15 (0.22) 0.06 (0.22) 0.07 (0.13) − 0.02 (0.16) − 0.30 (1.46) 0.23 (0.32) 0.40* (0.24) 0.38** (0.17) 0.16 (0.17) − 0.07 (0.14) 0.15 (0.14) − 0.14 (0.22)
Interpersonal trust 0.14 (0.42) − 0.25 (0.38) 0.07 (0.32) 0.44 (0.38) − 1.28 (1.88) 1.80*** (0.54) 1.29** (0.56) 0.41 (0.30) 0.09 (0.35) 0.02 (0.25) 0.46 (0.48) − 0.07 (0.25)
Constant − 0.72 (1.40) 0.33 (1.80) − 1.86 (1.22) − 3.03** (1.23) 3.75 (7.92) − 0.61 (1.94) − 3.84** (1.70) − 4.14*** (1.20) − 1.99 (1.25) 0.54 (0.94) − 4.56*** (1.27) 0.16 (1.31)
Observations 795 516 821 933 96 584 360 865 629 920 720 560
  1. Missing variables imputed. Standard errors in parentheses. Statistical significance: ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1. § responses not available for country