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Table 7 Linear regression analyses of propensity to migrate without papers, among those thinking of migrating, by country

From: Re-thinking the drivers of regular and irregular migration: evidence from the MENA region

  Algeria Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Palestine Sudan Tunisia Yemen
Socio-demographics
Male 0.29*** (0.05) 0.10 (0.06) 0.16*** (0.04) 0.11*** (0.03) − 0.12* (0.07) 0.04 (0.03) 0.17*** (0.06) 0.35*** (0.03) 0.12*** (0.04) 0.17*** (0.04) 0.19*** (0.04) 0.31*** (0.05)
Age − 0.01*** (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00) − 0.00 (0.00)
University − 0.01 (0.01) − 0.02* (0.01) − 0.00 (0.01) − 0.01 (0.01) − 0.02 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.01) − 0.06*** (0.02) − 0.04*** (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) − 0.01 (0.01) − 0.05*** (0.01) − 0.02** (0.01)
Unemployed 0.05 (0.05) 0.07 (0.07) 0.16*** (0.06) 0.07 (0.05) 0.18 (0.15) 0.03 (0.07) 0.16* (0.08) 0.11*** (0.03) 0.02 (0.06) − 0.07 (0.05) 0.01 (0.05) 0.03 (0.06)
Unmarried 0.14** (0.06) 0.01 (0.07) 0.02 (0.05) − 0.03 (0.04) − 0.13 (0.10) 0.00 (0.04) 0.03 (0.06) 0.09** (0.04) 0.11* (0.06) 0.05 (0.04) 0.09* (0.05) 0.05 (0.06)
High income − 0.10** (0.05) − 0.20*** (0.05) − 0.08** (0.04) − 0.07** (0.03) 0.10* (0.06) − 0.03 (0.05) 0.10* (0.06) − 0.00 (0.03) − 0.11** (0.04) − 0.12*** (0.04) − 0.09* (0.05) − 0.13*** (0.05)
Religious − 0.03 (0.05) 0.03 (0.06) 0.05 (0.04) 0.03 (0.03) 0.02 (0.11) − 0.00 (0.04) 0.05 (0.07) − 0.03 (0.04) 0.00 (0.05) − 0.03 (0.04) 0.02 (0.05) − 0.15*** (0.05)
(Perceived) economic and political context
Economic pessimism 0.04** (0.02) 0.03 (0.03) 0.01 (0.02) 0.04*** (0.01) 0.01 (0.03) 0.00 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) 0.02 (0.01) 0.01 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02) 0.05*** (0.01) − 0.04** (0.02)
Perceived democracy − 0.00 (0.01) − 0.02 (0.01) − 0.01* (0.01) − 0.01* (0.01) − 0.02 (0.01) 0.01 (0.01) − 0.01 (0.01) − 0.03*** (0.01) − 0.02 (0.01) − 0.01 (0.01) − 0.01* (0.01) 0.00 (0.01)
Perceived corruption § 0.01 (0.03) 0.04 (0.04) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.04 (0.04) − 0.02 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03) 0.03 (0.02) − 0.02 (0.03) − 0.04 (0.02) 0.04 (0.04) 0.02 (0.03)
Access to migrant networks
Use social media 0.03 (0.03) − 0.02 (0.04) 0.02 (0.02) 0.04** (0.02) 0.03 (0.03) − 0.06*** (0.02) 0.05 (0.03) 0.02 (0.02) 0.00 (0.02) 0.01 (0.03) 0.06*** (0.02) − 0.03 (0.03)
Trust social media − 0.04 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03) 0.04** (0.02) − 0.01 (0.02) 0.03 (0.03) − 0.01 (0.02) 0.04 (0.04) − 0.00 (0.02) 0.00 (0.03) 0.03 (0.02) 0.03* (0.02) − 0.01 (0.03)
Receive remittances − 0.01 (0.04) 0.01 (0.05) 0.04 (0.04) 0.01 (0.03) 0.02 (0.07) 0.01 (0.03) − 0.00 (0.06) 0.01 (0.02) 0.01 (0.03) − 0.01 (0.03) − 0.00 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03)
Psychological factors
Feel free to make decision − 0.03 (0.04) 0.01 (0.03) − 0.03 (0.03) − 0.02 (0.03) − 0.02 (0.04) − 0.01 (0.03) − 0.06 (0.05) 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.03) − 0.03 (0.03) 0.02 (0.03) − 0.02 (0.04)
Stress 0.00 (0.05) − 0.01 (0.04) − 0.00 (0.03) 0.01 (0.03) 0.01 (0.06) − 0.03 (0.03) − 0.01 (0.05) 0.03 (0.03) 0.05 (0.04) 0.03 (0.04) 0.03 (0.02) − 0.02 (0.04)
Depression 0.03 (0.04) 0.02 (0.04) 0.01 (0.03) − 0.01 (0.02) − 0.01 (0.07) 0.02 (0.03) 0.08* (0.04) 0.07** (0.03) 0.04 (0.03) − 0.02 (0.03) 0.02 (0.02) − 0.03 (0.04)
Interpersonal trust 0.03 (0.08) − 0.04 (0.06) 0.01 (0.07) 0.05 (0.06) − 0.02 (0.07) 0.24*** (0.09) 0.25** (0.11) 0.07 (0.05) 0.03 (0.07) 0.00 (0.06) 0.09 (0.09) − 0.02 (0.05)
Constant 0.38 (0.26) 0.42 (0.30) 0.08 (0.25) 0.02 (0.17) 0.39 (0.29) 0.21 (0.22) − 0.12 (0.33) − 0.24 (0.19) 0.06 (0.25) 0.66*** (0.21) − 0.39* (0.24) 0.59** (0.25)
Observations 795 516 821 933 96 584 360 865 629 920 720 560
  1. Missing variables imputed. Standard errors in parentheses. Statistical significance: ***p < 0.01, **p < 0.05, *p < 0.1. § responses not available for country