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Table 1 Descriptive statistics for MAFE-Senegal sample, by destination and legal status

From: Irregular status, territorial confinement, and blocked transnationalism: legal constraints on circulation and remittances of Senegalese migrants in France, Italy, and Spain

Variable France Spain Italy
Fully irregular Mixed (no RP) Mixed (no WP) Fully regular Fully irregular Mixed (no RP) Mixed (no WP) Fully regular Fully irregular Mixed (no RP) Mixed (no WP) Fully regular
mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd
Short returns 0.03 0.17 0.17 0.37 0.17 0.38 0.39 0.49 0.03 0.17 0.36 0.49 0.22 0.42 0.31 0.46 0.08 0.27 0.28 0.45 0.25 0.43 0.43 0.50
Remitting to Senegal 0.51 0.50 0.72 0.45 0.51 0.50 0.76 0.43 0.68 0.47 0.68 0.48 0.57 0.50 0.78 0.41 0.50 0.50 0.84 0.37 0.70 0.46 0.81 0.40
Entry status: no visa 0.37 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.48 0.35 0.48 0.59 0.49 0.20 0.41 0.39 0.49 0.34 0.47 0.54 0.50 0.23 0.43 0.79 0.41 0.60 0.49
Years in destination 4.88 3.98 10.50 8.02 9.65 9.16 12.50 9.30 2.53 1.72 3.90 2.26 6.51 5.47 7.60 5.28 3.80 3.76 6.56 5.04 7.84 5.68 9.13 5.56
Period of arrival: post-1990 0.57 0.50 0.15 0.35 0.37 0.48 0.34 0.47 0.93 0.25 1.00 0.00 0.80 0.40 0.79 0.41 0.82 0.39 0.83 0.38 0.72 0.45 0.66 0.47
Age at start of current migration spell 26.10 9.14 26.20 6.25 28.40 7.28 26.70 7.12 28.40 7.24 27.50 5.69 27.80 6.40 28.10 6.89 27.70 5.64 27.00 4.65 26.50 5.18 26.30 5.74
Sex: Male 0.52 0.50 0.72 0.45 0.56 0.50 0.60 0.49 0.87 0.33 0.75 0.44 0.46 0.50 0.82 0.39 0.86 0.35 0.92 0.27 0.83 0.38 0.94 0.24
Years of education 9.56 6.56 6.71 7.18 9.27 7.98 9.81 6.72 5.43 4.94 2.37 4.01 5.12 5.78 7.24 5.19 9.05 4.23 10.40 3.76 9.01 5.08 10.50 4.45
Ethnicity: Wolof 0.35 0.48 0.42 0.50 0.39 0.49 0.26 0.44 0.67 0.47 0.04 0.21 0.47 0.50 0.49 0.50 0.79 0.41 0.75 0.44 0.74 0.44 0.85 0.36
Religion: Mouride 0.41 0.49 0.39 0.49 0.16 0.37 0.15 0.36 0.35 0.48 0.23 0.43 0.48 0.50 0.36 0.48 0.75 0.43 0.61 0.49 0.61 0.49 0.66 0.47
Unemployed 0.02 0.13 0.01 0.12 0.01 0.08 0.03 0.17 0.06 0.24 0.08 0.28 0.02 0.14 0.03 0.18 0.10 0.29 0.03 0.16 0.03 0.17 0.01 0.11
Employed 0.64 0.48 0.90 0.31 0.69 0.46 0.77 0.42 0.88 0.32 0.79 0.42 0.52 0.50 0.94 0.24 0.89 0.32 0.97 0.16 0.83 0.38 0.97 0.16
Inactive 0.34 0.48 0.09 0.29 0.30 0.46 0.20 0.40 0.06 0.23 0.13 0.34 0.46 0.50 0.03 0.17 0.02 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.35 0.01 0.12
Occupation: self-employed 0.09 0.29 0.31 0.47 0.12 0.32 0.03 0.18 0.38 0.49 0.13 0.35 0.29 0.45 0.17 0.37 0.46 0.50 0.08 0.28 0.21 0.41 0.15 0.36
Self-reported economic status: good 0.22 0.42 0.03 0.16 0.03 0.17 0.05 0.22 0.02 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.15 0.03 0.16 0.04 0.19 0.10 0.30 0.11 0.32 0.15 0.35
Number of contacts at destination 2.09 2.21 1.05 1.57 3.46 2.68 4.44 2.85 1.87 1.75 1.45 1.54 3.00 2.08 2.35 1.96 2.08 1.89 3.17 2.32 2.29 2.22 2.24 2.04
Number of trips 1.74 0.88 1.32 0.92 1.71 1.07 1.43 1.00 1.47 0.78 1.22 0.54 1.34 0.61 1.45 0.80 1.37 0.66 1.26 0.47 1.32 0.66 1.45 0.96
Does not speak language of destination 0.16 0.37 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.35 0.05 0.22 0.67 0.47 0.77 0.43 0.68 0.47 0.59 0.49 0.60 0.49 0.53 0.50 0.73 0.44 0.53 0.50
Kids in Senegal 0.42 0.49 0.41 0.49 0.33 0.47 0.19 0.39 0.33 0.47 0.17 0.39 0.39 0.49 0.35 0.48 0.41 0.49 0.42 0.50 0.44 0.50 0.55 0.50
Spouse in Senegal 0.26 0.44 0.45 0.50 0.23 0.42 0.19 0.39 0.47 0.50 0.05 0.22 0.19 0.40 0.44 0.50 0.54 0.50 0.48 0.50 0.54 0.50 0.63 0.48
Geographic origin: from Dakar 0.20 0.40 0.13 0.34 0.26 0.44 0.21 0.41 0.30 0.46 0.14 0.35 0.20 0.40 0.33 0.47 0.51 0.50 0.45 0.50 0.34 0.47 0.45 0.50
Father's ed.: less than secondary school 0.64 0.48 0.74 0.44 0.65 0.48 0.62 0.49 0.78 0.42 0.88 0.34 0.77 0.42 0.82 0.38 0.80 0.40 0.75 0.44 0.67 0.47 0.72 0.45
Trip paid by family 0.38 0.49 0.28 0.45 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.50 0.27 0.44 0.13 0.34 0.50 0.50 0.27 0.44 0.25 0.43 0.23 0.42 0.42 0.49 0.31 0.46
Plan to stay: definitive 0.42 0.49 0.04 0.20 0.21 0.41 0.35 0.48 0.62 0.49 0.81 0.40 0.74 0.44 0.58 0.49 0.65 0.48 0.52 0.50 0.58 0.49 0.65 0.48
Trip motivation: work/better life 0.46 0.50 0.73 0.45 0.41 0.49 0.42 0.49 0.73 0.44 0.79 0.42 0.18 0.38 0.68 0.47 0.80 0.40 0.79 0.41 0.48 0.50 0.91 0.28
At least one parent alive in Senegal 0.91 0.28 0.88 0.33 0.93 0.26 0.75 0.44 0.89 0.31 0.95 0.23 0.86 0.34 0.81 0.40 0.74 0.44 0.93 0.25 0.81 0.40 0.81 0.39
Legal status mean sd mean sd mean sd
Fully irregular 0.13 0.34 0.26 0.44 0.21 0.4
Mixed (no RP) 0.031 0.17 0.027 0.16 0.063 0.24
Mixed (no WP) 0.1 0.3 0.055 0.23 0.12 0.33
Fully regular 0.74 0.44 0.65 0.48 0.61 0.49
N (person-years) 3677 2098 2413
N (trips) 768
  1. Source: MAFE-Senegal. Notes: sampling probability weights applied