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Table 2 Effects on local voting likelihood

From: The relationship between social identification and local voting, and its interplay with personal and group discrimination among the descendants of Turkish immigrants in Western Europe

  Model 1 Model 2
Social Identification
 Turkish identification .09 (.09) .20 (.11)†
 Islamic identification .02 (.06) .04 (.08)
Perceived Discrimination
 Group discrimination of Turkish-origin individuals .07 (.09) .06 (.07)
 Group discrimination of Muslims −.08 (.08) −.09 (.08)
 Personal experiences of discrimination −.02 (.07) .04 (.06)
Control variables
 Age .07 (.02)*** .08 (.02)***
 Women (ref. men) .05 (.12) −.02 (.12)
 Middle education (ref. lower) −.30 (.40) −.19 (.47)
 Higher education (ref. lower) .24 (.51) .33 (.63)
 Hours worked per week .00 (.01) .01 (.01)
 Monthly income −.04 (.06) −.08 (.06)
 Language proficiency .12 (.03)*** .11 (.04)**
 National identification .25 (.11)* .21 (.10)*
 National-origin composition neighborhood −.04 (.07) −.02 (.07)
 Turkish best friend (ref. native best friend) −.58 (.19)** −.36 (.21)†
 Other origin best friend (ref. native best friend) −.17 (.21) .13 (.21)
 Islamic denomination (ref. Sunni)
 Shia .57 (.38) .74 (.43)†
 Alevi .38 (.28) .45 (.29)
 Other Muslims −.10 (.10) −.10 (.10)
 Non-believer .22 (.17)
Countries (ref. Austria)
 France .00 (.33) .14 (.27)
 Germany −.36 (.41) −.56 (.35)
 Switzerland −.01 (.49) .19 (.44)
 The Netherlands .91 (.34)** .94 (.30)**
N 1627 1229
Df 29 28
Prob>Chi2 .000 .000
  1. The results are reported in log odds, the standard errors are indicated in parentheses and the standard errors are clustered on cities
  2. Source: TIES survey 2007/2008; † p < 0.10 *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001