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Table 1 Overview of systemic differences in the education of refugees in selected EU countries

From: Young refugees in education: the particular challenges of school systems in Europe

Reception education
 Model of reception education Reception classes exist No reception classes/refugees enrol directly in mainstream classes
 Country Austria, Belgium (Flanders), Germany, Finland, France, Italy, Sweden, Denmark, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, Poland Bulgaria, Slovakia, Spain, UK, Greece (since school year 2017/18)
Reception classes as separate classes Option to enrol directly in mainstream classes
Belgium (Flanders), Denmark, Hungary, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Greece (in 2016) Austria, Italy, (parts of) Germany, Greece, Sweden, Poland
Tracking
 Model of tracking First ability tracking with 10 years First ability tracking with 12 years First ability tracking with 15/16 years No tracking
 Country Germany (but regional differences)a The Netherlands, Greece, Belgium (Flanders) Sweden, Finland UK
Additional support for refugees and asylum seekers in mainstream schools
 Model of additional support No obligation to assign a person for additional support Obligation to assign a person for additional support
 Country Germany, Belgium (Flanders), The Netherlands, Greece Sweden
  1. aBerlin and Brandenburg are the only two federal states (Bundesländer) in which pupils are tracked after 6th grade, i.e. at the age of 12