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Table 2 Typology of supporters for asylum seekers and migrants with irregular status

From: Multilevel governance in trouble: the implementation of asylum seekers’ reception in Italy as a battleground

  NGOs and specialized organizations Other CSOs (associations of volunteers, churches, trade unions…) Social movements Common Citizens
Main activities SAR in the sea, reception on land Language schools;
Medical services;
Legal advocacy;
Bureaucratic assistance;
Provision of basic assistance: bath, bed and bread
Political protest, but increasingly provision of services (e.g. accommodation in squatted buildings) Donation of food, clothes, money; accommodation;
Volunteering; socialization, leisure
Political engagement Variable, recently higher against harsher closure of borders Variable, but increasingly coupled with the provision of services Main focus (no borders movements) Variable, often relevant as the reason to mobilise
Formalization High (formal organizations, contracts with public authorities) Mix of formal structures and informal activities Low, but self-organization Low (spontaneous mobilization)
Human resources Mainly professionals, volunteers as supplementary resources Variable, but often volunteering is relevant Militants/volunteers Only volunteers