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Table 3 Comparative Analysis on Three Online Social Networks

From: How migrants manifest their transnational identity through online social networks: comparative findings from a case of Koreans in Germany


Web 1.0

(Website A)

Web 2.0

(Facebook group B)

Web 3.0

(Postings on Twitter)

Descriptive Codes

a) Sentiments

‘puzzled’, ‘confused’, ‘sceptic’

‘disgusted’, ‘frustrated’, ‘determined’

‘outrageous’, ‘weird’,

‘perplexed’, ‘angry’

b) Us vs Them

Korean-German Migrants vs Koreans /Japanese

East Asian (Women) in Germany (or in Europe) vs Germans in Germany

Ethnic/gender minorities in foreign countries vs Racism/Sexism

c) Key messages

- Counter argument against negative responses to the ad

- Nothing (little) is wrong with the ad

- Empowerment of Asian - Migrants in Europe

- Accusation of the message of the ad as stereotyping Asians

- Condemnation of Racism/Sexism in Germany (Europe)

- Empowerment of (East) Asians (women)

Interpretive Code

d) Tones of voice

Mostly calm, barely using the emotional words or exclamation mark

Emotional words are often used, much more in the 1, 2 phases, relatively less in the 4,5 phases

Highly Emotional, often with aggressive expressions and/or extreme generalisations

e) Expected Audience

Korean people living in Germany, who may understand both Korean and German cultural contexts

People concerning the issues from Korean- German relations

- People concerning the discrimination issues from all kinds of subjects in the world

f) Identity


- Traditional Korean

- Antagonism based on the historical relation with Japan

- Naturalised Korean-Germans, having a different identity from Koreans in Korea

- A stereotyped East Asian

- Gender minority

- Minority amongst other migrants group in Germany

- (East) Asian

- Gender Minority

- Ethnic Minority

- Humans