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Table 1 Overview of national laws on voting in national elections and donates from abroad

From: Party expats? Mapping transnational party branches of French, German and UK parties

Country Activity National law Legal incentive for transnational party branches
UK External Vote Yes, since 1985 (15 years limit) low
Donate Yes, with some rules and very low limits:
- no limits for individuals on the electoral register in the UK (excludes Channel Islands, the Isle of Man)
-Foreigners and individuals not on the electoral register limited to below £50 for
individual candidate and below £500 to political parties + permits financial support for international travel, accommodation or subsistence by party officers/staff within ‘reasonable’ amounts
Germany External Vote Yes, since 1985, (with 25 years and other limits) medium
Donate Yes, overall with very lenient rules for both individuals and companies but low limit of 1000€ for non-EU donations high
France External Vote Yes, since 1975 and overseas MPs since 2011 (2012 first time elected) very high
Donate Yes, but strict rules and high overall limits:
- Donations by foreign individuals only and limited to 7500 per year and of 4600€ per election. €
  1. Source: IDEA-Voting From Abroad Database (2018), IDEA-Political Finance Database (2018), UK, German and French national laws, for more details see Supplementary Online Material