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Table 2 Non-contributory social transfers (NCST) during the pandemic in selected Latin American countries by type of provider and inclusion/exclusion of migrant and refugee populations

From: Towards a typology of social protection for migrants and refugees in Latin America during the COVID-19 pandemic

Country NCST from national government NCST from International Organisations (IOs) and Civil Society Organisations (CSOs)
Inclusion of migrants/refugees Inclusion of migrants/refugees in IOs programmes Inclusion of migrants/refugees in CSOs initiatives
Main programmes Status Requirements for inclusion Effective inclusion Reason for exclusion Main programmes Criteria for inclusion Main initiatives Criteria for inclusion
Brazil Bolsa Família (PBF) Increase in existing transfer and expansion to new recipients PBF: Regular migration status [CPF or Valid ID for registration in social programmes registry (CadÚnico). CPF is not conditioned to regular migration status] PBF: Full inclusion PBF: Over income threshold Cash transfers
Direct food provision
NGO financing of food provision
Hygiene kits [personal and household]
Open to anyone in need (nationals and non-nationals)
Most vulnerable individuals/families are prioritised
Some funds are earmarked for humanitarian response for Venezuelans
Cash transfers
Direct food provision
Personal and household hygiene kits
Open to anyone in need (nationals and non-nationals)
Most vulnerable individuals/families are prioritised for cash transfers
  Auxílio Emergencial (AE) New transfer Regular migration status [CPF and valid ID. expiration dates of government-issued IDs were extended] Full inclusion [Despite initial implementation problems most migrants and refugees were contemplated] Digital registration opened to all
In-person cashing-in of benefit requires possession of valid migration or refugee document
Chile Subsidio Único Familiar (SUF) Maintenance Regular migration status [National ID with ‘Unique National Number’ RUT. A valid RUT is conditioned to regular migration status] Limited to regular migrants Irregular migration status Financing for NGOs, municipalities and national government
Cash transfers
Vouchers and direct food provision
Financing of shelters and lodging
Open to migrants, asylum seekers and refugees
Most vulnerable groups are prioritised
Venezuelans and vulnerable migration groups are prioritised
Cash transfers
Direct food provision
Hygiene kits
Open to migrants, asylum seekers and refugees
  Subsidies1 New transfers Regular migration status [Valid national ID with RUT and previous registration in other NCST programmes—household social registry] Limited to regular migrants and population [discretionality] Irregular migration status and no previous enrolment in NCST pre existing programmes
Colombia Familias en Acción (FA) Maintenance Colombian nationality Exclusion Migrants and refugees are not eligible Cash transfers
Direct food provision
Hygiene kits
-Financing for NGOs, municipalities and national government
Open to migrants, asylum seekers and refugees
Most vulnerable groups are prioritised
National, returned and displaced populations were included
Cash transfers
Direct food provision
-Hygiene Kits
Most vulnerable individuals/families are prioritised
  Ingreso solidario (IS) New transfer Regular migration status [PEP for Venezuelans] Limited to regular migrants registered in social programmes registry (SISBEN) Irregular migration status
Ecuador Bono de Desarrollo Humano (BDH) Maintenance Ecuadorian nationality [since 2019 for BDH] Exclusion Migrants and refugees are not eligible Transfers to NGOs and local governments Open to migrants, asylum seekers and refugees
Most vulnerable groups are prioritised
Cash transfers
Direct food provision
Hygiene kits
Open to migrants, asylum seekers and refugees
  Bono de Protección Familiar por Emergencia (BPFE) New transfer Ecuadorian nationality [since 2019 for BDH] Exclusion Migrants and refugees are not eligible
Mexico Benito Juárez (BJ) scholarship for young students3 Maintenance Regular migration status Limited inclusion [uneven geographical discretionality] BJ: Uneven criteria for required documentation Cash transfers
Hygiene kits
Financing of shelters and lodging
Flexible criteria for NGO financing National network with comprehensive provision of services in shelters
Direct food provision
Hygiene kits
Open to anyone in need (nationals and non-nationals)
  Pensión para el Bienestar de Adultos Mayores (PBAM) Early disbursement Mexican nationality Exclusion Migrants and refugees are not eligible
Peru JUNTOS Expansion of cash transfer to new recipients JUNTOS: Specific regular migration status JUNTOS: Limited to migrants and refugee with residency card JUNTOS: Asylum seekers, temporary residence permit holders, and irregular migrants are not eligible Cash transfers
Direct food provision
Hygiene kits
Open to migrants, asylum seekers and refugees
Most vulnerable groups are prioritised
Cash transfers
Direct food provision
Hygiene kits
Open to anyone in need (nationals and non-nationals)
Venezuelan migrants and refugees are prioritised
  Subsidies2 New transfers Peruvian nationality [Valid national ID] Exclusion Migrants and refugees are not eligible
Uruguay Asignaciones Familiares Plan de Equidad (AFAM PE) Maintenance and increase of existing benefit Regular migration status [valid national ID issued to asylum and residence permit applicants, cédula de identidad provisoria] Limited to regular migrants Migrants that do not certify having a residence permit application or asylum seeker application are excluded Cash transfers
Direct food provision
Hygiene kits
Financing lodging
Open to migrants, asylum seekers and refugees
Most vulnerable groups are prioritised
Venezuelans and vulnerable migrant groups are prioritised
Contingent inclusion of nationals
NGOs receive support from AIs Open to migrant, asylum seekers and refugees
  INDA
  Tarjeta Uruguay Social (TUS)
  Canasta de Emergencia Alimentaria (CEA) New transfer Not conditioned to regular migration status Full inclusion Administrative challenges for digital registration faced by irregular migrants [These issues were solved through direct provision of food]
  1. Source: Own elaboration based on the analysis of interviews conducted in the seven country case studies
  2. (1) Chile implemented a wide range of policies and NCSTs based programmes in response to the pandemic. These included the Bono Covid19 [COVID-19 Benefit] (Law 21,225) and Ingreso Familiar de Emergencia (IFE) [Emergency Family Income] (Law 21,230), the former targeting the 60% most vulnerable households and the former targeting households with no formal income, belonging to the 90% most vulnerable. The government also implemented the Bono a la Clase Media [Middle-Class Benefit] and the Subsidio Ingreso Mínimo Garantizado (Law 21,218) [Minimum Wage Guarantee]. (2) Peru implemented the following NCST programmes: Yo me quedo en casa [I Stay at Home] (Executive order 027-2020, art. 2), Bono Independiente [Self-employed Benefit] (Executive order 027-2020, art. 3), Bono rural [Rural Benefit] (Executive order 042-2020, art. 2), and Bono Familiar Universal [Universal Family Benefit] (Executive order 052-2020, art. 2). (3) As part of the current administration’s non-contributory programs, Mexico also ​​implements the Programa Pensión para el Bienestar de las Personas con Discapacidad [Pension Program for the Welfare of People with Disabilities], through which girls, boys, adolescents, and youth aged 0–29 with permanent disabilities, and indigenous population aged 0–64, receive cash transfers in bimonthly basis