The Making and Unmaking of Religious Boundaries
Comparing Turkish and Moroccan Muslim minorities in European Cities
Comparative Migration Studies volume 1, pages 123–145 (2013)
In public debates over multiculturalism in Europe, Islamic values and ways of life are commonly represented as incompatible with Western rights and liberties. Against this background, Muslim minorities have developed generally strong and stable religious identities. This paper asks when and how multicultural cities and ethnic communities give rise to strong and stable religion. Taking an approach from religious boundary making as a heuristic framework, we bring together a series of five studies on the religious identities of Muslim minorities. The studies compare religious group boundaries and replicate boundary making processes (cf. Wimmer, 2008) across ethnic communities and multicultural cities as comparative cases. Drawing on several large-scale surveys of Muslim minorities, our comparative findings illuminate the making and unmaking of religious boundaries. We conclude that strong religion is ‘made in Europe’ as institutional rigidities and social inequalities enforce religious boundary making through social closure and cultural maintenance within ethnic communities.
Alba, R. (2005). Bright vs. blurred boundaries: Second-generation assimilation and exclusion in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 28(1), 20–49.
Alwall, J. (2000). Religious liberty in Sweden: an overview. Journal of Church and State, 42(1), 147–171.
Bader, V. (2007). The governance of Islam in Europe: The perils of modelling. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(6), 871–886.
Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries. The social organization of cultural difference. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.
Bauböck, R. (1998). The crossing and blurring of boundaries in international migration. Challenges for social and political theory. Pp. 17–52 in R. Bauböck & J. Rundell (Eds.), Blurred Boundaries: Migration, Ethnicity, Citizenship. Vienna: Ashgate.
Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth: acculturation, identity, and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 55(3), 303–332.
Crul, M., Schneider, J., & Lelie, F. (eds.) (2012). The European second generation compared. Does the integration context matter? Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Connor, P. (2010). Contexts of immigrant receptivity and immigrant religious outcomes: the case of Muslims in Western Europe. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 33(3), 376–403.
Connor, P., & Koenig, M. (2013). Bridges and barriers: religion and immigrant occupational attainment across integration contexts. International Migration Review, 47(1), 3–38.
Dagevos, J., Gijsberts, M., Kappelhof, J., & Vervoort, M. (2007). Survey Integratie Minderheden 2006. The Hague: SCP.
Dassetto, F. (1996). La construction de l’islam européen. Paris: L’Harmattan.
De Koning, M. (2008). Zoeken naar een ‘Zuivere’ Islam. Religieuze Beleving en Identiteitsvorming van Marokkaans-Nederlandse Moslims. Amsterdam: Bert Bakker.
De Valk, H., & Liefbroer, A. (2007). Parental influence on union formation preferences among Turkish, Moroccan, and Dutch adolescents in the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(4), 487–505.
Doomernik, J. (1995). The institutionalization of Turkish Islam in Germany and the Netherlands: a comparison. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 18(1), 46–63.
Ebaugh, H. R., & Chafetz, J. S. (2000). Religion and the new immigrants. Continuities and adaptations in immigrant congregations. Walnut Creek (CA): AltaMira.
Eid, P. (2007). Being Arab: Ethnic and religious identity building among second generation youth in Montreal (Vol. 22). Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Fetzer, J. S., & Soper, J. C. (2005). Muslims and the state in Britain, France, and Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fleischmann, F., & Phalet, K. (2012). Integration and religiosity among the Turkish second generation in Europe: a comparative analysis across four capital cities. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 35(2), 320–341.
Foblets, M.-C., & Overbeeke, A. (2002). State intervention in the institutionalisation of Islam in Belgium. In W. A. R. Shadid & S. Van Koningsveld (Eds.), Religious freedom and the neutrality of the state: The position of Islam in the European Union (pp. 113–128). Leuven: Peeters.
Foner, N., & Alba, R. (2008). Immigrant religion in the U.S. and Western Europe: Bridge or barrier to inclusion? International Migration Review, 42(2), 360–392.
Gans, H. J. (1994). Symbolic ethnicity and symbolic religiosity: towards a comparison of ethnic and religious acculturation. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 17(4), 577–592.
Groeneveld, S., & Weijers-Martens, Y. (2003). Minderheden in beeld: SPVA-02. Rotterdam: ISEO.
Güngör, D., Fleischmann, F., & Phalet, K. (2011). Religious identification, beliefs, and practices among Turkish Belgian and Moroccan Belgian Muslims: Intergenerational continuity and acculturative change. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(8), 1356–1374.
Heath, A., Rothon, C., & Kilpi, E. (2008). The Second Generation in Western Europe: Education, unemployment and occupational attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 34, 211–235.
Khosrokhavar, F. (1997). L’islam des jeunes. Paris: Flammarion.
King, P. E., Furrow, J. L., & Roth, N. H. (2002). The influence of family and peers on adolescent religiousness. The Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 21, 109–120.
Koenig, M. (2007). Europeanising the governance of religious diversity: An institutionalist account of Muslim struggles for public recognition. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 33(6), 911–932.
Kwak, K. (2003). Adolescents and their parents: a review of intergenerational family relations for immigrant and non-immigrant families. Human Development, 46(2/3), 115–136.
Lamont, M. (2000). The dignity of working men: Morality and the boundaries of race, class, and immigration. Harvard University Press.
Lamont, M., & Molnár, V. (2002). The Study of Boundaries in the Social Sciences. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 167–195.
Lijphart, A. (1968). The politics of accommodation: pluralism and democracy in the Netherlands. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Maliepaard, M., & Gijsberts, M. (2012) Moslim in Nederland 2012. The Hague: Netherlands Institute for Social Research.
Maliepaard, M., Gijsberts, M. & Lubbers, M. (2012). Reaching the limits of secularization? Turkish- and Moroccan-Dutch Muslims in the Netherlands 1998–2006. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 51(2), 359–367.
Maliepaard, M. & Lubbers, M. (2013). Parental religious transmission after migration: The case of Dutch Muslims. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(3): 425–442.
Maliepaard, M. & Phalet, K. (2012). Social integration and religious identity expression among Dutch Muslims: The role of minority and majority group contact. Social Psychology Quarterly, 75(2), 131–148.
Martens, E. P. (1999). Minderheden in beeld: de SPVA-g8. Amsterdam: Veldkamp.
Martinovic, B., & Verkuyten, M. (2012). Host national and religious identification among Turkish Muslims in Western Europe: The role of ingroup norms, perceived discrimination and value incompatibility. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42(7), 893–903.
Maussen, M. (2007). The governance of Islam in Western Europe: A state of the art report: IMISCOE.
Myers, S. M. (1996). An interactive model of religiosity inheritance: The importance of family context. American Sociological Review, 61(5), 858–866.
Pew Forum (2011). The future of the global Muslim population. Projections for 2010–2030. Washington D.C.: Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life.
Phalet, K., Fleischmann, F., & Stojčić, S. (2012). Ways of ‘being Muslim’: Religious identities of second-generation Turks. In Crul, M., Schneider, J. & Lelie, F. (eds.), The European second generation compared: Does the integration context matter? Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Phalet, K., & Güngör, D. (2009). Cultural continuity and discontinuity in Turkish migrant families. In S. Bekman & A. Koç (eds), Cross-cultural perspectives on human development and family change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Phalet, K., & Heath, A. (2010). From Ethnic Boundaries to Ethnic Penalties: Urban Economies and the Turkish Second Generation. American Behavioral Scientist, 53(11), 1824–1850.
Raj, D. S. (2000). ‘Who the hell do you think you are?’: Promoting religious identity among young Hindus in Britain. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 25(3), 535–558.
Rath, J., Penninx, R., Groenendijk, K., & Meijer, A. (1996). Nederland en zijn islam. Een ontzuilende samenleving reageert op het ontstaan van een geloofsgemeenschap Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis.
Regnerus, M. D., Smith, C., & Smith, B. (2004). Social context in the development of adolescent religiosity. Applied Developmental Science, 8(1), 27–38.
Schiffauer, W. (2000). Die Gottesmänner. Frankfurt a/M: Suhrkampf.
Schmidt, G. (2011). Understanding and approaching Muslim visibilities: Lessons from a fieldwork-based study of Muslims in Copenhagen. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(7), 1216–1229.
Sniderman, P. M., & Hagendoorn, L. (2007). When ways of life collide. Multiculturalism and its discontents in the Netherlands. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Statham, P., Koopmans, R., Giugni, M., & Passy, F. (2005). Resilient or adaptable Islam? Multiculturalism, religion and migrants’ claims-making for group demands in Britain, the Netherlands and France. Ethnicities, 5(4), 427–549.
Swyngedouw, M., Phalet, K., Baysu, G., Vandezande, V., & Fleischmann, F. (2008). Technical Report TIES 2007–2008 Belgium — Extended. Trajectories and Experiences of Turkish, Moroccan and Native Belgians in Antwerp and Brussels. Leuven: CeSo/CSCP.
Van Tubergen, F., & Sindradóttir, J. Í. (2011). The Religiosity of Immigrants in Europe: A Cross-National Study. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 50(2), 272–288.
Voas, D. & Fleischmann, F. (2012). Islam moves West: Religious change in the first and second generation. Annual Review of Sociology, 38, 525–545.
Werbner, P. (2000). Divided loyalties, empowered citizenship? Muslims in Britain. Citizenship Studies, 4(3), 307–324.
Wimmer, A. (2008). Elementary strategies of ethnic boundary making. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31(6), 1025–1055.
Ysseldyk, R., Matheson, K., & Anisman, H. (2010). Religiosity as identity: toward an understanding of religion from a social identity perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(1), 60–71.
About this article
Cite this article
Phalet, K., Maliepaard, M., Fleischmann, F. et al. The Making and Unmaking of Religious Boundaries. CMS 1, 123–145 (2013). https://doi.org/10.5117/CMS2013.1.PHAL