- Open Access
Beyond National Models?
Comparative Migration Studies volume 2, pages77–99 (2014)
This comparison of Canada and Germany focuses on a particular dimension of these countries’ respective approaches to governing migration and integration. It is guided by a key conceptual assumption: Cities and regions have become important laboratories for deliberating, developing, and implementing immigration and, in particular, integration policies. With this analytical lens, the article investigates the form and degree to which subnational levels of government have come to play a more prominent role in this policy field. Both Canada and Germany show a comparable diffusion of governance authority across different levels of government. Yet the factors driving this development vary considerably across national contexts. While Canada’s multicultural policy has set a comprehensive national framework for addressing the task of migrant integration, in Germany the momentum in this policy field has moved decisively to regions and cities.
Baraulina, T. (2007). Integration und Interkulturelle Konzepte in den Kommunen. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 22–23, 26–32.
Bauder, H. (2008). Media discourse and the new German Immigration Law. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(1), 95–112.
Bauder, H. (2011). Immigration Dialectic: Imagining Community, Economy, and Nation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Belanger, A. (2005). Population Projections of Visible Minority Groups, Canada, Provinces and Regions, 2001–2017. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
Bertossi, C., & Duyvendak, J.W. (2012). National models of immigrant integration. The costs for comparative research. Comparative European Politics, 10(3): 237–247.
Biles, J. (2008). Integration policies in English-speaking Canada. In: J. Biles, M. Burstein & J. Frideres, (eds.). Immigration and Integration in Canada in the Twenty-first Century. Kingston: Queen’s University, School of Policy Studies, 139–86.
Biles, J., E. Tolley, C. Andrew, V. Esses & Burstein, M. (2011). Integration and inclusion in Ontario: The sleeping giant stirs. In: J. Biles, Burstein, M. & Frideres, J. (eds.). Integration and Inclusion of Newcomers and Minorities Across Canada. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 195–246.
Bradford, N. (2005). Place-based Public Policy: Towards a New Urban and Community Agenda for Canada. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks.
Brubaker, R. (2001). The return of assimilation? Changing perspectives on immigration and its sequels in France, Germany, and the United States. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 24(4), 531–48.
Caponio, T. & Borkert, M. (eds.) (2010). The Local Dimension of Migration Policymaking. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Carter, T. & Amoyaw, B. (2011). Manitoba: The struggle to attract and retain immigrants. In: J. Biles, Burstein, M. & Frideres, J. (eds.). Integration and Inclusion of Newcomers and Minorities Across Canada. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 165–93.
Duyvendak, J.W. & Scholten, P.W.A. (2011) Beyond the Dutch ‘multicultural model: The coproduction of integration policy frames in the Netherlands. International Migration and Integration, 12(3), 331–348.
Entzinger, H. & Biezeveld, R. (2003). Benchmarking in Immigrant Integration. Rotterdam: European Research Centre on Migration and Ethnic Relations.
Falge, C., Ruzza, C. & Schmidtke, O. (2012). Giving New Subjects a Voice. Political and Institutional Responses to Cultural Diversity in the Health Care System. Aldershot: Ashgate.
FCM (2011). Starting on Solid Ground: The Municipal Role in Immigrant Settlement. http://www.fcm.ca/Documents/backgrounders/Starting_on_solid_ground_the_municipal_role_in_immigrant_settlement_Report_Overview_EN.pdf (accessed September 29, 2013).
Frideres, J.S. (2006). Cities and Immigrant Integration: The Future of Second- and Third-Tier Centres. Our Diverse Cities. Metropolis: http://www.metropolis.net/pdfs/ODC_2_Frideres_e.pdf (accessed September 21, 2013).
Good, K. (2005). Patterns of politics in Canada’s immigrant-receiving cities and suburbs: How immigrant settlement patterns shape the municipal role in multiculturalism policy. Policy Studies, 26(3–4), 261–89.
Green, S. (2000). Beyond ethnoculturalism? German citizenship in the New Millennium. German Politics, 9, 105–24.
Hiebert, D. & Sherrell, K. (2009). The Integration and Inclusion of Newcomers in British Columbia. Working Paper No. 2009-11, Vancouver: Metropolis British Columbia.
Hilber, D. & Baraulina, T. (2012). Migration and development. A new policy paradigm in Germany? IMIS Beiträge, 40, 89–113.
Hooghe, L. & Marks, G. (2001). European Integration and Multi-Level Governance. Boulder, CO: Rowman and Littlefield.
Ilgün, E.E. & Jungk, S. (2001). Migration in NRW. Selbstorganisationen von Migranten und Migrantinnen. Landeszentrum für Zuwanderung (http://www.rk-essen.lvr.de/behandlungsangebote/ambulanzen/selbstorganisationenvonmigranteninnrw.pdf (accessed October 15, 2013).
Joppke, C. (2007). Beyond national models: Civic integration policies for immigrants in Western Europe. West European Politics, 30(1), 1–22.
Korte, K.R. (2009). Wahlen in NRW: Kommunalwahl — Landtagswahl — Bundestagswahl — Europawahl. Schwalbach: Wochenschau-Verlag.
Koser, K. (2010). The impact of the global financial crisis on international migration. The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, XI(1), 13–20.
Leo, C. & August, M. (2009). The multilevel governance of immigration and settlement: Making deep federalism work. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 42(2), 491–510.
Ley, D. (2007). Post multiculturalism? In: L. Hanley, B. Ruble & A. Garland (eds.). Immigration and Integration in Urban Communities: Renegotiating the City. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center Press, 177–97.
Li, P.S. (2012). Federal and provincial immigration arrangements in Canada: Policy changes and implications. In: Rodriguez-Garcia, D. (ed.). Managing Immigration and Diversity in Canada. A Transatlantic Dialogue in the New Age of Migration. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press, 87–111.
Maytree Foundation (2013). Good Ideas from Successful Cities Municipal Leadership on Immigrant Integration. (http://www.citiesofmigration.ca/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Municipal_Report_Canada.pdf; accessed October 1, 2013).)
Papademetriou, D. & Terrazas, A. (2009). Immigrants and the Current Economic Crisis: Research Evidence, Policy Challenges, and Implications. Washington DC: MPI.
Parekh, B. (2006). Rethinking Multiculturalism. Cultural Diversity and Political Theory. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.
Polese, M. & Stren, R. (2000). The Social Sustainability of Cities: Diversity and the Management of Change. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Poppelaars, C., & Scholten, P.W.A. (2008). Two worlds apart: The divergence of national and local immigrant integration policies in the Netherlands. Administration & Society, 40(4), 335–57.
Reese, I. (2011). Under Pressure — Atypical Asymmetry in Canadian Immigration Policy. Paper presented at the Canadian Political Science Association conference, Kitchener.
Schmidtke, O. & Zaslove, A. (2014a). Multilevel party politics of immigration in Germany and Italy. In E. Hepburn, ed., The Politics of Immigration in Multi-level States: Governance and Political Parties. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press (in press).
Schmidtke, O. & Zaslove, A. (2014b). Why regions matter in immigrant integration policies: North-Rhine Westphalia and Emilia-Romagna in comparative perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies (in press).
Schönwälder, K. (2013). Immigrant representation in Germany’s regional states: The puzzle of uneven dynamics. West European Politics, 36(3), 634–651.
Schönwälder, K. & Kofri, C. (2010). Diversity in Germany’s Political Life? Immigrants in City Councils. MMG Working Paper 10-17 (see http://www.mmg.mpg.de/de/publikationen/all-publications/2010/; accessed September 28, 2013).
Scholten, P.W.A. (2013). Agenda dynamics and the multi-level governance of intractable policy controversies: The case of migrant integration policies in the Netherlands. Policy Sciences, 46(3), 217–236.
Seidle, F. L. (2010). The Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement: Assessment and Options for Renewal. M.C.f.P. Innovation. Toronto: Mowat Centre for Policy Innovation.
Siemiatycki, M. (2011). Governing immigrant city: Immigrant political representation in Toronto. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(9), 1214–34.
Siemiatycki, M. (2012). The place of immigrants: Citizenship, settlement, and socio-cultural integration in Canada. In: Rodriguez-Garcia, D. (ed.). Managing Immigration and Diversity in Canada. A Transatlantic Dialogue in the New Age of Migration. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press, 223–247.
Stasiulis, D., Hughes, C. & Amery, Z. (2011). From government to multilevel governance of immigrant settlement in Ontario’s city-regions. In: Tolley, E. & Young, R. (eds.). Immigrant Settlement Policy in Canadian Municipalities. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 73–147.
Tolley, E. (2011). Introduction: Who invited them to the party? Federal-municipal relations in immigrant policy. In: Tolley, E. & Young, R. (eds.). Immigrant Settlement Policy in Canadian Municipalities. Montreal/Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 3–48.
Tossutti, L.S. (2012). Municipal roles in immigrant settlement, integration and cultural diversity. Canadian Journal of Political Science, 45(3), 607–33.
Triadafilopoulos, T. (2011). Illiberal means to liberal ends? Understanding recent immigrant integration policies in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 37(6), 861–80.
Triadafilopoulos, T. (2012). Becoming Multicultural: Immigration and the Politics of Membership in Canada and Germany. Vancouver: UBC Press.
Vasta, E. (2007). Accommodating Diversity: Why Current Critiques of Multiculturalism Miss the Point. COMPAS Working Paper Series 39. Oxford: University of Oxford, COMPAS.
Vertovec, S. (2006), The Emergence of Superdiversity in Britain, Centre on Migration, Policy and Society. Working Paper no 25, University of Oxford: COMPAS.
Vertovec, S. & Wessendorf, S. (2010). The Multicultural Backlash: European Discourses, Policies and Practices. London: Routledge.
Wimmer, A. (2008). The making and unmaking of ethnic boundaries: A multilevel process theory. American Journal of Sociology, 113(4), 970–1022.
Wimmer, A. & Glick-Schiller, N. (2003). Methodological nationalism, the social sciences, and the study of migration: An essay in historical epistemology. International Migration Review, 37(3), 576–610.