Skip to main content

Traditions of Nationhood or Political Conjuncture?

Debating Citizenship in Canada and Germany

Abstract

If migration studies in the 1990s were marked by the predominance of the “national models” approach, the early 2000s have seen an increasing rebuttal to this approach. This paper contributes to the debate by examining the politics of citizenship in Germany and Canada, two countries that are usually located at opposing poles of the “national models of immigration and citizenship continuum”. The paper combines inductive process tracing and discourse analysis to examine some of the most controversial citizenship legislation in both countries: Optionspflicht [the duty to choose] in Germany and the “first generation limitation” in Canada. Overall, the analysis presented agrees with recent critiques of the national models approach in migration studies. However, and in contrast to the latter, it maintains that national trajectories — rather than models — provide a cognitive matrix into which policy changes and their justifications need to be inserted.

References

  1. Abu-Laban, Y. (2014). Reform by Stealth: The Harper Conservatives and Canadian Multiculturalism. In Jack Jedwab (Ed.), The Multiculturalism Question: Debating Identity in 21st Century Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Alboim, N. & Cohl, K. (2012). Shaping the Future: Canada’s Rapidly Changing Immigration Policies. In Maytree Foundation (Ed.), (pp. 85): The Maytree Foundation.

  3. Anderson, C.G. (2006). A Long-standing Canadian Tradition: Citizenship Revocation and Second-class Citizenship under the Liberals, 1993–2006. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian Political Science Association, Toronto.

  4. Anonymous (2013, 18 November). Optionspfliche 2013: 176 Personen haben schon ihren deutschen Pass verloren, Deutsch Türkische Nachrichten. Unabhängige Zeitung für Politik, Wirtschaft und Kultur. Retrieved from http://www.deutsch-tuerkische-nachrichten.de/2013/11/494266/optionspflicht-2013-176-personen-haben-schon-ihren-deutschen-pass-verloren/

  5. Banting, K. & Kymlicka, W. (2014). Is there really a retreat from multiculturalism policies? New evidence from the multiculturalism policy index. Comparative European Politics, 1–22.

  6. Bauder, H. (2011). Immigration Dialectic: Imagining Community, Economy, and Nation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Beach, D. & Pedersen, B.R. (2013). Process-Tracing Methods: Foundations and Guidelines. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Bendel, P. & Kreienbrink, A. (Eds.) (2008). Kanada und Deutschland. Migration und Integration im Vergleich. Nürnberg: Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Berlin Institut für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung (2012). Nach Punkten vorn. Was Deutschland von der Zuwanderungs- und Integrationspolitik Kanadas lernen kann [Winning Points: What Germany can learn from Canada’s Immigration and Integration Policy]. Berlin: Robert Bosch Stiftung.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bloemraad, I. (2006). Becoming a Citizen: Incorporating Immigrants and Refugees in the United States and Canada. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bloemraad, I. (forthcoming). Re-imagining the Nation in a World of Migration: Legitimacy, Political Claims-making and Membership in Comparative Perspective. In Nancy Foner & Patrick Simon (Eds.), Fear and Anxiety over National Identity, New York: Russell Sage Foundation Press.

  12. bpb (2010). Die soziale Situation in Deutschland: Bevölkerung mit Migrationshintergrund I. Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung.

  13. Brouwer, A. (2012). Statelessness in the Canadian Context. An updated discussion paper. (UNHCR, Trans.). In UNHCR (Ed.), (pp. 89). New York: United Nation.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Brubaker, R. (1992). Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Brubaker, R. (Ed.) (1989). Immigration and the Politics of Citizenship in Europe and North America. Lanham, London: University Press of America.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Bundesministerium des Inneren. (2008). Zuwanderungsgesetz Retrieved 10 October 2009, from http://www.zuwanderung.de/cln_115/nn_1068334/DE/Zuwanderung__geschieht__jetzt/Zuwanderungsgesetz/Zuwanderungsgesetz__node.html?__nnn=true

  17. Bundesregierung Deutschland (2013). Deutschlands Zukunft gestalten. Koalitionsvertrag zwischen CDU, CSU und SPD. Berlin: Retrieved from https://http://www.cdu.de/sites/default/files/media/dokumente/koalitionsvertrag.pdf.

  18. Castles, S. (1995). How Nation-States Respond to Immigration and Ethnic Diversity. New Community, 21(3), 293–308.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Council for European Studies (2010). FORUM: How are Europeans Made? Debating a National Models Approach to Immigrant Integration. Perspectives on Europe, 40(2), 35–55

    Google Scholar 

  20. Deutscher Bundesrat (2013a). Plenarprotokoll. Stenographischer Bericht der 910. Sitzung. Retrieved from http://dip.bundestag.de.

  21. Deutscher Bundesrat (2013b). Plenarprotokoll. Stenographischer Bericht der 912. Sitzung. (P. 389–391), 5 July.

  22. Deutscher Bundestag (2013). Plenarprotokoll. Stenographischer Bericht der 242. Sitzung der 17.

  23. Wahlperiode. Bonn: Retrieved from http://dip.bundestag.de.

  24. Duyvendak, J.W. & Scholten, P.W.A. (2011). Beyond the Dutch “Multicultural Model”. The Coproduction of Integration Policy Frames in The Netherlands Journal of International Migration and Integration, 12, 331–348. doi: DOI 10.1007/S12134-010-0161-5

    Google Scholar 

  25. Entzinger, H. (2004). Integration and Orientation Courses in a European Perspective. Expert Report written for the Sachverständingenrat für Zuwanderung und Integration (pp. 31): Sachverständingenrat für Zuwanderung und Integration.

  26. Etzioni, A. (2007). Citizenship Tests: A Comparative, Communitarian Perspective The Political Quarterly, 78(3), 353–363.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Finotelli, C., & Michalowski, I. (2012). The Heuristic Potential of Models of Citizenship and Immigrant Integration Reviewed. Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies, 10(3), 231–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Garcea, J. (2006). The Third Phase of the Canadian Citizenship Reform Project: Objectives and Obstacles. In Hans J. Michelmann & Cristine de Clercy (Eds.), Continuity and Change in Canadian Politics: Essays in Honour of David E. Smith (pp. 195–244). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Gerdes, J. & Faist, T. (2006). Von ethnischer zu republikanischer Integration. Der Diskurs um die Reform des deutschen Staatsangehörigkeitsrechts. Berliner Journal für Soziologie, 16(3), 313–335.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Goodman, S.W. (2010). Integration Requirements for Integration’s Sake? Identifying, Categorising and Comparing Civic Integration Policies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(5), 753–772.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Green, S. (2000). Beyond Ethnoculturalism? German Citizenship in the New Millennium. German Politics, 9(3), 105–124.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Green, S. (2012). Much ado about not-very-much? Assessing ten years of German citizenship reform. Citizenship Studies, 16(2), 173–188. doi: 10.1080/13621025.2012.667610

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hailbronner, K. (2006). Germany. In Rainer Bauböck, Eva Ersbøll, Kees Groenendijk & Harald Waldrauch (Eds.), Acquisition and Loss of Nationality. Volume 2: Country Analyses: Policies and Trends in 15 European Countries (pp. 213–251). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Hammar, T. (1989). State, Nation, and Dual Citizenship. In William Rogers Brubaker (Ed.), Immigration and the Politics of Citizenship in Europe and North America, Lanham, New York, London: University Press of America (pp. 81–95). Lanham, New York, London: University Press of America.

    Google Scholar 

  35. Heckmann, F. (2003). From Ethnic Nation to Universalistic Immigrant Integration: Germany. In Friedrich Heckmann & Dominique Schnapper (Eds.), The Integration of Immigrants in European Societies: National Differences and Trends of Convergence (pp. 45–78). Bamberg, Stuttgart: European Forum for Migration Studies (EFMS), Lucius & Lucius.

    Google Scholar 

  36. Helbling, M. & Vink, M. (2013, forthcoming). From Models to Indices and Beyond: Tracking Citizenship and Diversity (special issue). Comparative European Politics.

  37. House of Commons (1971). Debates. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Howard, M.M. (2008). The Causes and Consequences of Germany’s New Citizenship Law. German Politics, 17(1), 41–62.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Howard, M.M. (2009). Citizenship Politics in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  40. Howard, M.M. (2012). Germany’s Citizenship Policy in Comparative Perspective. German Politics and Society, 30(1), 39–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Hsieh, H.-F. & Shannon, S.E. (2005). Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277–1288. doi: 10.1177/1049732305276687

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Huddleston, T., & Dag Tjaden, J. (2012). Immigrant Citizens Survey: How immigrants experience integration in 15 European cities. Brussels: King Badouin Foundation and Migration Policy Group.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Jacobs, D. & Rea, A. (2007). The End of National Models? Integration Courses and Citizenship Trajectories in Europe. International Journal on Multicultural Societies (UNESCO), 9(2), 264–283.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Joppke, C. (2007). Beyond National Models: Civic Integration Policies for Immigrants in Western Europe. Western European Politics, 30(1), 1–22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Kent, T. (2008, 26 April). Canada is much more than a hotel. If they are not ready to commit to a citizenship that has real consequences, immigrants should move on, Globe and Mail, p. A25.

  46. Klärner, A. (2000). Aufstand der Ressentiments: Einwanderungsdiskurs, völkischer Nationalismus und die Kampagne der CDU/CSU gegen die doppelte Staatsbürgerschaft. Köln: PapyRossa.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Kymlicka, W. (2003). Being Canadian. Government and Opposition, 38(3), 357–385.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Michalowski, I. (2011). Required to assimilate? The content of citizenship tests in five countries. Citizenship Studies, 15(6–7), 749–768.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. MiGAZIN (2013, 13 June). Optionspflicht: Alle drei Tage wird aus einem deutschen Jugendlichen ein Ausländer.

  50. Morse, E. (2014, 21 January). Two-tier Citizenship Is a Terrible Idea, Ottawa Citizen, p. A9.

  51. Mouritsen, P. (2012). The resilience of citizenship traditions: Civic integration in Germany, Great Britain and Denmark. Ethnicities, 13(1), 86–109.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Nyers, P. (2010). Dueling designs: The politics of rescuing dual citizens. Citizenship Studies, 14(1), 47–60.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. OECD (2012). Settling In: OECD Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2012: OECD Publishing.

  54. Orgad, L. (2009). Illiberal Liberalism: Cultural Restrictions on Migration and Access to Citizenship in Europe. American Journal of Comparative Law, 58 (1).

  55. Palmowski, J. (2008). In search of the German nation: citizenship and the challenge of integration. Citizenship Studies, 12(6), 547–563.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Paquet, M. (2012). Beyond Appearances: Citizenship Tests in Canada and the UK. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 13(2), 243–260. doi: 10.1007/S12134-011-0233-1

    Google Scholar 

  57. Pélabay, J. (2011). L’Europe des valeurs communes et le recul du multiculturalisme: la diversité supplantée par l’unité. Revue philosophique de Louvain, 109(4), 747–770.

    Google Scholar 

  58. Schönwälder, K. & Triadafilopoulos, T. (2012). A Bridge or Barrier to Incorporation? Germany’s 1999 Citizenship Reform in Critical Perspective. German Politics and Society, 30(1), 52–70. doi: 10.3167/gps.2012.300104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Senate (2008). Debates (Hansard). Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/Sen/Chamber/392/Debates/038db_2008-03-04-e.htm.

  60. Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration (2008a). Evidence. Ottawa: Parliament of Canada Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=3267682&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=39&es=2.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Standing Committee on Citizenship and Immigration (2008b). Evidence. Ottawa: Parliament of Canada Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/HousePublications/Publication.aspx?DocId=3278686&Language=E&Mode=1&Parl=39&Ses=2.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology (2008). Proceedings. Ottawa: Parliament of Canada, Retrieved from http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/392/soci/05cv-e.htm?Language=E&Parl=39&Ses=2&comm_id=47.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Statistics Canada (2011). Single and Multiple Citizenship Responses. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/tbt/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=89450&PRID=0&PTYPE=88971,97154&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&Temporal=2006&THEME=72&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=.

  64. Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland (2014). Bevölkerung und Erwerbstätigkeit: Einbürgerungen. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt Retrieved from https://http://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/GesellschaftStaat/Bevoelkerung/MigrationIntegration/Eingebuergerte Personen/Tabellen/EinbuergerungenEinbuergerungsquoteLR.html.

    Google Scholar 

  65. Triadafilopoulos, T. (2012). Becoming Multicultural: Immigration and the Politics of Membership in Canada and Germany. Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press.

    Google Scholar 

  66. van Oers, R. (2010). Citizenship Tests in the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. In Ricky van Oers, Eva Ersbøll & Dora Kostakopoulou (Eds.), A Re-definition of Belonging? Language and Integration Tests in Europe (Vol. 20, pp. 51–105). Leiden, Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  67. Weinmann, M., Becher, I. & Babka von Gostomski, C. (2012). Einbürgerungsverhalten von Ausländerinnen und Ausländern in Deutschland sowie Erkenntnisse zu Optionspflichtigen. Ergebnisse der BAMF-Einbürgerungsstudie 2011. (Vol. Forschungsbericht 15). Nürnberg: Bundesregierung Deutschlan; Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge.

    Google Scholar 

  68. Will, A.-K. (2012). Deutsche Integrationsmaßnahmen aus der Sicht von Nicht-EU-Bürgern. Die Ergebnisse des Immigrant Citizens Survey für Deutschland. Berlin: Sachverständigenrat deutscher Stiftungen für Integration und Migration.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Winter, E. (2011). Us, Them and Others: Pluralism and National Identity in Diverse Societies. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

    Google Scholar 

  70. Winter, E. (2013). Descent, Territory, and Common Values: Redefining Citizenship in Canada. In Dina Kiwan (Ed.), Naturalization Policies, Education and Citizenship: Multicultural and Multi-nation Societies in International Perspective (pp. 95–122). London, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Winter, E. (2014a). Becoming Canadian — Making Sense of Recent Changes to Citizenship Rules. IRPP Study (Montreal Institute for Research on Public Policy) (44), 1–28.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Winter, E. (2014b). (Im)Possible Citizens: Canada’s ‘Citizenship Bonanza’ and its Boundaries. Citizenship Studies, 18 (1).

  73. Winter, E. & John, K. (2009). German Citizenship in the Context of the European Union: Recent Changes. SSHRC Strategic Knowledge Cluster Canada-EU Transatlantic Dialoge Policy Brief, from http://www.carleton.ca/europecluster/publications.html

  74. Worbs, S., Scholz, A. & Blicke, S. (2012). Die Optionsregelung im Staatsangehörigkeitsrecht aus der Sicht von Betroffenen. Qualitative Studie. In Bundesregierung Deutschland; Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (Ed.) (Vol. Forschungsbericht 16). Nürnberg.

  75. Worthington, P. (2006, 21 July). Convenient Canadians, Toronto Sun, p. A18.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Elke Winter.

Rights and permissions

Open Access  This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

To view a copy of this licence, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Winter, E. Traditions of Nationhood or Political Conjuncture?. CMS 2, 29–55 (2014). https://doi.org/10.5117/CMS2014.1.WINT

Download citation

Keywords

  • Germany
  • Canada
  • citizenship
  • integration
  • national models
  • ethnic/civic nation
  • dual citizenship