| Open | Published:
Migration Policies and Migrant Employment Outcomes
Comparative Migration Studiesvolume 2, pages417–443 (2014)
While a number of studies explored the demographic and human capital attributes affecting migrant socio-economic assimilation, less is known about the role of immigration status on entry. In particular, little evidence exists on the employment outcomes of migrants admitted outside economic immigration channels (family, study, asylum or permit-free) and joining the labour market once in the country of destination. This paper addresses this knowledge gap. Its conceptual framework for understanding how immigration status on arrival influences access to the labour market highlights the role of selectivity mechanisms and of different rights and constraints characterizing the legal situation of migrants who enter via different admission routes. The empirical analysis builds on original estimates of the migrant workforce by immigration status on entry based on the 2008 Ad-Hoc Module of the EU Labour Force Survey. Logistic regressions show that immigration status on arrival affects the participation in the labour market, the probability of being unemployed and the access to a job commensurate to the migrant skills. While the participation of family migrants and refugees in the labour market is positively associated with their length of stay, these categories retain a significant unemployment disadvantage in almost all European destinations. This gap becomes particularly evident at the intersection of immigration status and gender. Results suggest the need for a more holistic approach to the governance of labour migration that takes into account the long-term trends of migrant labour supply.
Achato L., Eaton M. & Jones C. (2013). The migrant Journey — Third Report. Research Report 69, London: Home Office.https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/143930/horr69-report.pdf
Altorjai S. (2013). “Over-qualification of immigrants in the UK”. ISER Working Paper Series No. 2013-11, University of Essex: Institute for Social and Economic Research. https://www.iser.-essex.ac.uk/publications/working-papers/iser/2013-11.pdf
Anderson B. (2010). “Migration, immigration controls and the fashioning of precarious workers”. Work, Employment and Society, 24(2): 300–317.
Anderson B. & Ruhs M. (2010). “Migrant Workers: Who Needs Them? A Framework for the Analysis of Staff Shortages, Immigration and Public Policy”, in: Ruhs M. and Anderson B. (eds.) Who Needs Migrant Workers? Labour Shortages, Immigration and Public Policy, pp. 15–52. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bernardi F., Garrido L. & Miyar M. (2011). “The Recent Fast Upsurge of Immigrants in Spain and Their Employment Patterns and Occupational Attainment”. International Migration, 49(1): 148–187.
Bevelander P. & Pendakur R. (2009). “The employment attachment of resettled refugees, refugees and family reunion migrants in Sweden”, in Bevelander, P. Hagstrom, M. and Ronnqvist, S. Resettled and Included? The employment integration of resettled refugees in Sweden, pp. 227–245. Malmo: Malmo University.
Bloch A. (2007). “Refugees in the UK Labour Market: The Conflict between Economic Integration and Policy-led Labour Market Restriction”. Journal of Social Policy, 37(1): 21–36.
Bonjour S. (2014). “The Transfer of Pre-departure Integration Requirements for Family Migrants among Member States of the European Union”. Comparative Migration Studies, 2(2): 203–226.
Büchel F. & Frick J.R. (2005). “Immigrants’ economic performance across Europe — does immigration policy matter?” Population Research and Policy Review, 24(2): 175–212.
Cangiano A. (2012). “Immigration policy and migrant labour market outcomes in the European Union: New evidence from the EU Labour Force Survey”. Lab-Mig-Gov working paper, Turin: FIERI.http://www.labmiggov.eu/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Cangiano-Lab-Mig-Gov-Final-Report-WP4.pdf
Cangiano A. (2014). “Elder Care and Migrant Labor in Europe: A Demographic Outlook.” Population and Development Review, 40(1): 131–154.
Cangiano A. & Strozza S. (2008). “Foreign Immigration in Southern European Receiving Countries: New Evidences from National Data Sources”. In: Bonifazi C., Okólski M., Schoorl, J. and Simon P. (eds.), International Migration in Europe: New Trends, New Methods of Analysis, IMISCOE Research, Amsterdam: University Press, 153–178.
Carfagna S., Gabrielli D., Sorvillo, M.P. & Strozza S. (2008). “Changes of status of immigrants in Italy: results of a record-linkage on administrative sources”. Paper presented at the European Population Conference, Barcelona. http://epc2008.princeton.edu/papers/80562
Czaika M. & De Haas, H. (2013). “The Effectiveness of Immigration Policies”. Population and Development Review, 39(3):487–508.
Dustmann C. & Frattini T. (2012). “Immigration: The European Experience”. Norface Migration Discussion Paper No. 2012-01. http://www.norface-migration.org/publ_uploads/NDP_01_12.pdf
Eurostat (2010). Report on the quality of the LFS ad hoc module 2008 on the labour market situation of migrants and their descendants. Doc. Eurostat/F2/EMPL/22/10. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/employment_unemployment_lfs/documents/Evaluation%20report%20AHM%202008.pdf
Eurostat (2011). Migrants in Europe. A statistical portrait of the first and second generation. Eurostat Statistical Books. Luxemburg: Publications Office of the European Union. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-31-10-539/EN/KS-31-10-539-EN.PDF
Finotelli C. (2012). “Labour migration governance in contemporary Europe — The case of Spain”. Country Report for the LAB-MIG-GOV Project “Which labour migration governance for a more dynamic and inclusive Europe?”, FIERI Working Paper. http://www.labmiggov.eu/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/LABMIGOV_WP1_SPAIN_Final-report.pdf
Kogan I. (2007). Working through barriers: host country institutions and immigrant labour market performance in Europe. Dordrecht: Springer.
Kogan I. (2011). “New Immigrants, Old Disadvantage Patterns? Labour Market Integration of Recent Immigrants into Germany”. International Migration, 49(1): 91–117.
Lemaitre G., Liebig T., Thoreau C. & Fron P. (2007). Standardised statistics on immigrant inflows: results, sources and methods. Paris: OECD.http://www.oecd.org/els/mig/38832099.pdf
Martí M. & Ródenas C. (2007). “Migration Estimation Based on the Labour Force Survey: An EU-15 Perspective”. International Migration Review, 41(1): 101–126.
Münz R. (2007). “Migration, Labor Markets, and Integration of Migrants: An Overview for Europe”, Policy Paper 3–6, Hamburg: HWWI.http://www.hwwi.org/uploads/tx_wilpubdb/HWWI_Policy_Paper_3-6_01.pdf
OECD (various years). International Migration Outlook, Sopemi Report, Paris: OECD.
Office for National Statistics. 2014. “Migration Statistics Quarterly Report, August 2014.” Statistical Bulletin. London: ONS. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_375307.pdf
Pastore F. (2010). “Managing Migration through the Crisis: Evolving Patterns in European Policies on Labour Migration and Mobility”. FIERI Working Paper, http://www.labmiggov.eu/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/MIGRATION-IN-UNCERTAIN-TIMES-_Working-Paper-FIERI-Dec-2010_.pdf
Pastore F. (2014). The Governance of Migrant Labour Supply in Europe, Before and During the Crisis. (Introduction) Comparative Migration Studies, 2(4): 385–415.
Reitz J. (2013). “Closing the Gaps between Skilled Immigration and Canadian Labour Markets: Emerging Policy Issues and Priorities”. In Triadafilopoulos (ed.) Wanted and Welcome? Policies for Highly Skilled Immigrants in Comparative Perspective, pp. 147–163, New York: Springer.
Reyneri E. (2003). “Immigration and the underground economy in new receiving South European countries: Manifold negative effects, manifold deep-rooted causes”. International Review of Sociology, 13(1): 117–143.
Reyneri E. & Fullin G. (2011). “Labour Market Penalties of New Immigrants in New and Old Receiving West European Countries”. International Migration, 49(1): 31–57.
Ruhs M. (2011). “Openness, Skills and Rights: An empirical analysis of labour immigration programmes in 46 high- and middle-income countries”. Working Paper No. 88, Oxford: Centre on Migration, Policy and Society.
Salis E. (2012). “Labour migration governance in contemporary Europe — The case of Italy”. Country Report for the LAB-MIG-GOV Project “Which labour migration governance for a more dynamic and inclusive Europe?” FIERI Working Paper. http://www.labmiggov.eu/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/LABMIGOV_WP1_Italy_Final-report.pdf
Statistics Sweden (2011). Return migration by time spent in Sweden. Stockholm: SCB.
Toshkov D. & De Haan L. (2013). “The Europeanization of Asylum Policy: An assessment of the EU impact on asylum applications and recognitions rates”. Journal of European Public Policy, 20(5): 661–683.
Wanner R. (2011). “Immigration Policy and the Economic Integration of Immigrants: A Cross-National Comparison”. Prairie Metropolis Centre, Working Paper Series, WP11-01. http://pcerii.metropolis.net/WorkingPapers/WP1101.pdf